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David Harpp (107)
Lecture

Sweeteners

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 181
Professor
David Harpp
Semester
Winter

Description
World of Chem: Food March 13 Sweeteners Sweeteners Sugar has a bad rep: its supposed to rot our teeth, and main culprit for obesity. Thus artificial sweeteners (non-nutritive sweeteners) introduced to the market, though not all calorie free. (Sweet N Low) U.S. has the highest consumption of sweeteners the U.S. consumes half of all non-nutritive sweeteners in the world. France is the most profitable country for McDonalds (other than the U.S.) Largest number of restaurants (after the U.S.) and the largest private employer in France. Saccharin: Remsen and Fahlberg 1879 o Fahlberg (Remsens student) noticed saccharin tasted sweet when he accidentally got some on his hand so he patented saccharin (went behind Remsen). Professor Remsen never forgave Fahlberg. o Remsen published a paper about saccharin but only after it was patented by Fahlberg. Saccharin got started as a substitute for sugar in Germany John Francis Queeny brought in saccharin and put it in the U.S. market. His wifes name was Olga Monsanto: thus Monsanto company. Sweeteners: 500-600x as sweet as sugar. But bitter aftertaste; thus 300x as sweet; some other substances added to cut down on bitter aftertaste. Saccharin: 300x sweetness; 0 calories (compared to sugar) o Dilute solution until you do not notice sweetness anymore to figure out the sweetness; thus diluted 300 times o Good for diabetics But increased incidence of bladder cancer among male rats fed high lifetime amounts of saccharin and whose parents had also been fed high lifetime amounts of saccharin Canadian study 1977. o Thus, Saccharin banned as a food additive in Canada o But available as a table-top sweetener in pharmacies only. E.g. Hermeseta Each tablet Hermesetas is equivalent in sweetness to one teaspoonful of sugar. Each tablet contains 11.85 mg sodium saccharin. In the U.S.: The Delaney Clause (part of the FDA act): any substance shown to cause cancer under any circumstances cannot be put on the market. o Equivalent for a human to drink 800 cans of soft drinks a day to get the same effect as the rat study! o Overturned by the American congress special law to override the clause. o In the U.S. on labels, a warning: Canada has shown that saccharin is dangerous to your rat`s health. o Thus in the U.S. saccharin is allowed as a food additive and available as a table-top sweetener but with a warning label Saccharin removed from carcinogens list in 2000 Saccharin causes cancer in male rats by a mechanism not found in humans World of Chem: Food March 13 Sweeteners Difference between Risk, Hazard, and Exposure Lion is a hazard but the risk depends on the conditions under which you meet the hazard (in a zoo or in the safari) Risk = hazard x exposure Risk depends on the type of species involved (mouse vs. antelope against the lion; lion wont bother mouse) o Thus risk = hazard x exposure x susceptibility Thus, after President Clinton lifted the ban on saccharin, it is allowed in the U.S. as a food additive and tabletop sweetener without a warning label. Things have not changed in Canada Sorbitol/Xylitol: sugar alcohol sugar with OH groups. o In chewing gum o 0.6 x sweetness (compared to sugar) and 1.3 calories. o Used in diabetic products gives bulk and not easily metabolised (thus little calories). o Exploding diarrhea associated with sorbitol Saccharin-free table top sweetener introduced discovered by accident by Michael Sveda 1937 who was a graduate student. o He smoked in his lab, and noticed it tasted sweet. Thus cyclamate. o Sweetness 30x; 0 calories. o Does not give rise to the bitterness that saccharin gives o Bladder tumors in rats fed a 10:1 mixture of cyclamate-saccharin 1969 study. o Canada: Banned as a food additive Available as a table-top sweetener o U.S.: Banned as a food additive and as a table-top sweetener o Sweet N Low contains cyclamate added to saccharin to cut down on bitter aftertaste Robert Schlatter: accidental discovery paper contaminated with something sweet: Aspartame aspartic acid and phenylalanine (made from 2 amino acids linked together). Also a methyl ester attached on the aspartic acid. o When aspartame is metabolized by the body: methyl ester is converted to methanol. * o 180x sweetness; 4 calories (same as protein) but so little is needed so really not many calories. o Sold as Equal. o PKU: genetic disorder in children. They cannot take aspartame; phenylalanine not properly metabolised and goes to the brain. o Not heat stable sweetness disappears after a while in coffee because sweetness only present when the two amino acids are linked together. When they are broken apart, the sweetness is gone. o Methanol is extremely toxic: can blind you or kill you. Thus why aspartame acquired such a bad name: it has wood alcohols in it. Methanol 80,000 120,000 mg: death, which is a small glass full. But 7 mg per soft drink with aspartame!World of Chem: Food March 13 Sweeteners 40 mg per fruit juice drink (methanol is naturally present) 85 mg methanol in tomato juice! o Some people are sensitive to aspartame they will get adverse reactions. Not allergy because it has nothing to do with the immune system but people get headaches, dizziness, fatigue and mood changes (but all anecdotal evidence!!) o Epidemiological studies: Parkinsons, MS, Cancer? People suffering from diabetes most likely to take aspartame-sweetened drinks. But they dont have any higher incidences of these diseases. o Aspartame and brain tumours? Association. Increased incidents in both between 1980 and 1987. Not causative! Past 1987, brain tumour incidences level off while aspartame consumption is increased! New techniques developed to detect brain tumours between 1980 and 1987! o ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake): 50 mg/kg o NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level): 4000 mg/kg o Average Daily Intake: 5 mg/kg o A 70 kg man would have to drink 20 cans a day to reach the ADI, and 1600 cans a day to reach the NOAEL. o Study 2005: 1800 rats fed various amounts of aspartame over their lifetime. Female rats show a statistically significant increase in lymphomas and leukemia when fed doses close to human consumption.
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