John Hunter (720-1790)-rooster combs and testes
Bertold-replicated Hunter and worked
Dolanski- dog- pancreas/liver. Inject acid in rectum but no effect.
Brown-Sequard (1889)- injected himself with macerated dog testicles, then monkeys. (Sherlock
Holmes author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle didn’t like this man’s ethics on animals- The Adventure of
the creeping man story)- Introduced the idea of hormone therapy. Product Sequarin (supposed
to be extract of testes) made several years after his death.
John Romulus Brinkley (time of Brown-Sequard)-saw business opportunity, bought himself a
medical degree (only needed money and a short fellowship), started a business=goat to man
testicle transplant (1700 in career, never connected it to anything in body…).
1895-Adrenalin extract injected to raise blood pressure-works, still used (epipen)
Starling-dogs, liver/pancreas releasing secretion during eating. Fed animal food, injected ground
duodenum into jugular.- Thought something from duodenum was released into bloodstream that
caused message to be sent to release digestive juices from pancreas and liver. Worked within
seconds. Chemical/the something given term secretin- first hormone to be completely purified
Hormone-“stir into action” from greek. Released into bloodstream to cause reaction. Endocrine
glands release them. Kidneys secrete hormones maintaining mineral balance within the body.
Pituitary- middle of brain (pea sized). Master endocrine gland. Secretes many hormones that
travel to other endocrine glands (ex. Thyroid stimulating hormone (to thyroid) and ovaries-birth
control pill targets pituitary-, prolactin-tells breast to secrete milk, sometotropin ie growth
hormone-acromegali and crenitism, adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH (released from pituitary
to adrenal gland) making them produce them hormones. Secretes 1 millionth of a gram of
hormone per day. Without this minute amount, there is no life. Demonstrates that exposure of
chemicals in environment even in tiny doses can be very harmful (ex. BPA, etc.). Sandy Allen-
world tallest women; took off front seat of her car and drove car from back seat; died early-
common due to stress on body ex. circulatory system. General Trump-circus, crenetism.
World’s Tallest Man-Robert Wadlow, over 8feet tall, died at 22, proportionate. Acromegaly-
growing forward… People of short stature-medical or genetic condition that results in an adult
height of 4’10’’ or shorter. Treatment-recombinant DNA used to make the growth hormone for
body. To grow taller? Is more better? Different affect?
Human Growth Hormone-produce less as you age. What if you keep the levels constant with
age? Paper of 1990 in The New England Journal of Medicine (one of most respected journals of
medicine in the world) by Daniel Redman on HGH on men over age of 60. Noticed an 8.8%
increase in muscle and other lean tissue, 14.4% decrease in fatty tissue, 7.1% increase in skin
thickness, 1.6% increase in the average density of lower-back vertebrae. Experiment stopped
after 6 months though due to observed increased blood pressure, plasma glucose increase,
carpal tunnel syndrome, and breast enlargement. This was never reported in the press-only the anti aging effect was reported. Redman wrote letter to New England Journal of Medicine saying
he made a mistake. Following experiments have found no measurable improvements in
muscle function or physical performance in spite of improved muscle-fat distribution. HGH
therapy still offered for large price. hGH secretagog for cheaper. This is a mix of aas in hGH-
idea if injest this body will fit it together and form hGH. Reason we make less as we age has
nothing to do with not enough material (eat lots of protein ie aas) but enzyme that makes
hormone that decreases.
hGH-use in milk production in cows (increases production by up to 20%). Bovine somatotropin.
Used in US as veterinary drug. Controversial due to genetic engineering. Canada doesn’t allow
it since industry that produces this hormone has not pushed use in Canada since different way
of producing milk than US. Must buy milk quotas to produce x amount of milk on annual basis-
motivation not there to produce more whereas in US government buys excess milk. Canada
has also said that not much use to have this approved. Excess production can also lead to
mestysis-cracks. Issues of increased levels of insulin-like growth factor in cows threated with
Procine somatotropin. Make pig or beef grow faster. Stringent regulation about when can be
butchered and how much can be given. Higher muscle to fat ratio and tests found no different
in meat of hGH treated and non hGH treated animals.
Thyroid- cold all the time=Hypothyroidism-sluggishness, slow heart rate, tendency to obesity,
Goiter-when thyroid is working hard to produce hormones. (no raw materials-iodine deficiency).
Can also be caused by eating too much cabbage. Cretinism- mom didn’t have enough iodine.
Hyperthyroidism-anxiety, nervousness, rapid pulse, fatigue, weight loss that is very quick.
=Graves Disease (protruding eyes)- rare disease. Case where husband and wife had it-large
Treatment of hyperthyroidism
Drugs that block hormone formation (methimazole)
Radioactive iodine (I-131)- to destroy part of gland
Surgery-cut away part of gland.
Surgery and radioactive often results in hypo production-pill called Syphroid. Hypothyroidism is
very common in NA and don’t know why.
Parathyroid (smaller than pea)-4 of them on top of thyroid. Regulates calcium and phosphorous
metabolism together with thyroid. Calcium is important for heart and bones. Bone is dynamic. Calcium in