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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 nov 19th.docx

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CHEM 182
Joe Schwarcz

Lecture 12: Tobacco and Drug Marketing Tobacco plant (pretty flowers) 20% Canada, 25% Quebec(highest province), 16% of BC (lowest) smoke 35.5 Yukon, NWT 35.7% and Nunavut 61.3% smoke Tobacco discovered by Columbus on November 12, 1492- described as drinking tobacco Tabbagos is name of leaves. Tobago island is said to be first import location of tobacco (origin of name). Active ingredient is nicotine- name from Jean Nicot (introduced tobacco to France and then to rest of Europe). At time any new plant from different country thought to have healing properties. By bridges of London, Tobacco Resuscitator (1774) for reviving person “apparently dying” (eg. Had drown). Initially tobacco was smoked in pipes (very long stand- remove some of harshness of smoke. Initially was NOT INHALED) in smoking dens (didn’t smoke alone). Women would snuff tobacco (put it up nose- idea lining of nasal passage very thin and tobacco could be absorbed). th 18 century- chew tobacco (US, time of Lincoln, spit it out after in spittoons). Spitting world record: 25 feet, 10 inches. Today, most of tobacco smoked as cigarettes. La Cometa (Goya painter- first representation of cigarette). Popularity of smoking cigarettes came during Crimean War (1853-1856) [Russia vs GB/France] which took place near Turkey. Turks smoked cigarettes and soldiers developed taste for it. Initially, cigarettes were expensive since they were handmade. Popularity started after invention of Bonsack Machine (1880) 2000 cigarettes/minutes (vs 2 or less per minute) and new Flue- curing process (early 1900s) which made smoking much less harsh. Major reason became bad for us. 1913 (Camel-associated with TUrkey) Late 1800s= 50 cigarettes/year; Today 10000 cigarettes/year. 4800 chemicals present in cigarette smoke, of these 400 are toxic and 40 are carcinogenic. Short-term effects: Nicotine (2 mg-enough to make you hooked). Nicorette is 2mg. Uniquely nicotine has dual symptoms of CNS: Low dose: CNS increase; high dose CNS decreases Small puffs: stimulant; long puffs: relaxes Acetylcholine receptors are blocked at high doses. Nicotine is a poison (black leaf 40mg is an insecticide). 60mg is lethal dose. Nicotine is allowed as a pesticide in organic farming. Nicotine is leading cause of poisoning in children (put parents cigarettes in mouth). Cigars contains 120mg but don’t smoke whole thing and don’t inhale. Sigmund Freud was addicted to cigars (20-30per day), developed cancer of jaw (?) but still smoked. Dopamine- produced when like something (reward nt). Cause: Lack of oral stimulation as babies? (suck thumb= higher risk for smoking addiction). Health Effects: Long-term: nicotine is stimulant (speed up heart rate) Carbon monoxide (ties up hemoglobin). Why smokers are short of breath. Heart disease is highest cause of death due to smoking (not lung cancer). Decreased oxygen uptake, increased heart rate and bp, increased arterial walls injuries, increased blood clotting. Rene Levesque was heavy smoker. Olympic athlete broke his cigarette in half. Died of heart attack (wife too also smoker). Long-term effects caused by chemicals such as: benzopyrenes, nitrosamines, aza-arenes, aldehydes, benzene, ethylene oxide, Ni, Cd, Co, Cr… Alton Oschsner (1919) was first to notice lung disease cases associated with smoking. Then there were 400 cases associated now there are 150000 cases. Most cancer death rate are relatively steady except with lung cancer which greatly increases (in men much higher and stabilizes, in women starts similar to others and grows linearly). Lung cancer in women went from #8 in 1961, #2 in 1977, to #1 in 1987 in terms of death rate. 1930s- mostly men smoked until then. Workshops were organized that thought women how to smoke. Today there are more women smokers than men. One reason women smoke and don’t want to stop is because nicotine speeds up metabolic rate so help lose weight or less likely to put on weight. Also if you smoke it affects your taste buds (food doesn’t taste as good). There is an association of smoking and wrinkles (carbon monoxide and smoke in eyes). Shown that enzyme MMP-1 affected by smoking (associated with collagen which holds skin together- interfere and breakdown collagen). Smoke due to advertising. One way to advertise is to associate smoking with something. McGill cigarettes were sold to build gymnasium. “More Doctors Smoke Camels”. Marlboro Lights (great outdoors association- Wayne McLaran Died in 1992 age 51 from lung cancer). DIdn’t show that cigarettes can cause a heart attack since was in ad of magazine. Yul Brunner was an actor and heavy smoker that died of lung cancer. Made ad that broadcast the day he died saying that he will be death when you see this due to cigarettes. Companies will pay movies to have actors smoke in movie. Always show smokers that look fit and happy. Second Hand smoking. Smokers in front of plane and non-smokers in back (smoke just drifted in back so did nothing). Non-smokers started rebelling. Ban on smoking in public places, ban on smoking in bars and restaurants and advertising restrictions. France- before restaurants could be smoking or non-smoking. Now all non-smoking. September 2012-on pack of cigarettes, only ¼ can describe cigarette. Rest is warning labels. 2008- in depaneur cigarettes had to be covered up. Tobacco companies used to pay drug stores for displaying cigarettes (100-20000$ per year). Litigation- 204$billion (1998) lawsuit against health costs- no more billboards. Class action law suits 145$billion lawsuit for advertising cigarettes good for you knowing it kills. Said to fortify with nicotine to make people addicted. In 1994 cigarette company CEOs asked under oath if nicotine is addictive and said no. Nicotine doesn’t cause you to get drunk therefore they claimed not addictive. Only causes dependence, intoxication, withdrawal and tolerance…. Litigation in Canada- Lawsuits by provincial government to recover health costs associated with smoking. Ontario 50$billion, Quebec 60$billion, Alberta 10$billion… Class action lawsuits in Quebec 27$billion in Montreal against Imperial Tobacco JTI MaDonald, Rothmans Benson & Hedges… 1960s in NA 50% smoked; Today about 20% therefore decreasing. Profits though have increased though sales have declined since in China smoke American cigarettes (385million smokers in China). To stop smoking SNUS- can get cancer Acupuncture doesn’t work Nicorette, patch (slow release-23mg for 12hrs) both work Zyban (antidepressant)- works but side effect of abnormal heart rate. Best way to stop is to go cold turkey. Mark Twain- “It is easy to stop smoking; I have done it many times” Topic 2: Drug Marketing Canada-5000 drugs, 450 million prescriptions per year, number 1 in Canada and US and world is Lipitor. Lipitor has gone off patent- can get in generic
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