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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 182
Professor
Joe Schwarcz

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Lecture 5: Allergies Can’t get an allergic reaction first time exposed to compound- can have been exposed without realizing 10-20% have some sort of allergies (probably higher according to prof) Terms: anapholaxis (ultimate allergic reaction that can result in death-dilation of blood vessels and large drop in blood pressure); atopy (have tendency to develop allergy due to genetic background- often starts in infancy with eczema (behind elbow or ear) and develops more serious as adult) allergic rhinitis- “hay fever” (wheezing, prevalent, not due to hay); 50% of ppl with this will develop asthma; chance of outgrowing it; developing after puberty very unlikely that it will go away; misnomer since nothing to do with hay (hay rather non-allergenic unless contaminated with mold which produces a variety of compounds causing allergic reactions); most cases due to pollen (plant equivalent of sperm; we react to PROTEINS- go into nose, eyes, can swallow) we react mostly to ragweed (summer-height of allergy season)- illegal to have it on your property- exposure usually in face=tearing, itchiness, coughing (system trying to eliminate material to protect itself) Animals- cats dead cells (especially black cats-produce more of the allergenic protein); if have other allergies but not allergic to cats, being around cats can worsen other allergies= must avoid; dogs not as bad (don’t produce as many of the proteins causing the allergies; dust mites (their poop-allergen carried in air)-everywhere (on you, where there is dust, skin, eye brows, etc.)=often go on to have asthma Total allergy syndrome- rare; allergic to almost anything around them (modern syndrome due to large of amount of chemicals-paint, cleaning products, etc.)-must isolate themselves and limit exposure; ex. Women wrap house in aluminum foil; question of exactly what they are suffering from- psychological component to illness since patients have certain profile-concerned about environmental pollution, nervous, etc.; real symptoms though, but double blind test don’t get reaction when don’t think or know that they are exposed but react when they realize they are exposed to it. Food allergies-common; esp. certain food ex. Fish (watch thai restaurants-Dr. Swartz has the allergy), shellfish (very different than fish chemically- reaction to both rare), milk (esp. infants but usually outgrown), peanuts (legumes- easy to figure out since reaction fast; rare allergy but A LOT OF PRESS since very serious allergy with VERY LITTLE to provoke it); McGIll dental student died from oatmeal cookie that had traces of peanuts (epipen in locker equivalent distance of across the hall); camping trip peanut free but person making sandwiches used same knife as used with peanut=death; reaction VERY fast and need very little ex. Diarrhea, vessels dilating=shock, sometimes digestive reactions (ex. Physician- food diary and monitored symptoms= yellow #6 triggered reaction- cereals, etc.); 4% of population (large number); NOT food intolerance(30%) (no immune system/allergen-antibody interaction involved- ex. Lactose intolerance (70% of world)- don’t have enzyme to digest)-sulfites in red wine, shrimp, or nitrites in cured meats or tyramine in cheese Royal jelly-previous pollen exposure can cause reaction when eating this Vaccines- some vaccines contain gelatin- later allergic reaction to marshmallows due to this exposure\ Asthma and allergies have significantly increased-better diagnosis (access to healthcare, used to not tell doctor if cough a few months in year); new novel substances into environment since WWII (80000substances ish-cleaning agents, air fresheners, perfumes(department store smell over 100 chemicals)) can somehow rev up immune system to react with something that they didn’t use to react with (theory)and more exposure the more chance to end up with reaction. MANY studies- Early vitamin exposure can increase risk of allergies and asthma African Americans if exposed at certain point in their lives (under 6 mo); never duplicated; can’t change life for ONE study; can find study to back up anything that you want to say. Hygiene Hypothesis (only circumstancial society)- clean society compared to past which may go against us; study school children in Ecuador- less allergies in those infected with worms because immune system busy fighting legitimate invader (allergy=body mistake); not exposed to enough dangers early in our lives to react properly in future, immune system looks for targets and pick wrong ones: circumstancial evidence: daycare=less likely to develop leukemia and certain type of lymphoma (contact to others therefore reved up immune system and target bad bacteria); farmers 5X less likely to develop lung cancer (confounding variables? 5X less likely to smoke? Not the case)-dust from manure that they are breathing in reving up immune system (more to it than that); cotton factory smokers lower risk of some cancers (crotting endotoxin- complex molecule that activates immune system by possible attack of other substances) Symptom: person expression but not necessarily seen by anyone else Sign: objective; anyone else can see ex. Black eyes=food allergy or tired Tongue= cinnamon; doesn’t happen right away and might not remember having eaten it Epipen(push button, injector into thigh)- epinephrine (adrenalin) produced by adrenal gland- immediate effect to reverse reaction; Benedrill then administered; must be nearby and RENEWED Time of first exposure critical- peanut allergy virtually inexistent in Israel (first snack given at about 6 mo); if exposed at right time in life can prevent allergy (theory) Sesame allergy is increasing: bagel with this becoming very popular; statistically, more product out there, higher risk of allergy and some substances more likely to cause allergy Soybean- one of few foods exposed that have a GM component; investigating to make GMO soybean as better food for animal (low in amino acid methionine- certain nuts high in this therefore take brazil nut gene and put into soybean) = manipulating genes necessitates allergy test since if allergic to brazil nuts then allergic to this soybean; tested this- same allergenic reaction as brazil nut; due to this testing, never marketed; rare situation since turns out brazil nut allergy came from same protein made by methionine gene Can be allergic to stings of bees, insects, etc.- instant anaphoraxis therefore rapid reaction Can have mild reaction at first then worse anaphoractic reaction later on. Ex. Bee sting (one of few where allergy shot works), same for peanuts Can be allergic from touch Contact dermatitis general term by reaction from skin contact; t
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