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Lecture

chem 183 hormones

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 183
Professor
Joe Schwarcz
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture3 September-20-12 12:07 AM HORMONES • Bible:DavidandtheGoliath ○ David(smallguy)killedGoliath(giant)withslingshotandbeheadedhim ○ Goliathsufferedfrommultipleendocrineneoplasia  Hormonaldisturbancethatcauses: □ Excessivegrowth □ Visualproblems(pituitary) □ Lowbloodsugar(pancreas) □ Softskull(parathyroid) • Whatare hormones? • Whatproblemsare associatedwithhormoneimbalance? • Whattreatmentsare available? • Arehormonesusedforany otherreasonthan tocorrectan imbalance? • Whatare the risksand benefitsofhormonetreatments? JohnHunter(famousphysicianof18thcentury) • Observedthatwhencastratedroosters,theircombsbegantoshrink • Whatwas goingon? • ArnoldBerthold(1849, physiologist)castratedroostersandreturnedatesticleintothebodycavity • Roostershowednormalsexualbehaviourandcombdevelopment • "testesreleasedsomethingintotheblood" • ThomasAddison(1855) notedonautopsythat peoplewhohadatrophiedadrenalglands(adrenalswereshrunken)had shownpoorappetite,lowbloodpressure,weaknessanemiaandbronzedskin ○ Diseaseknownas"AddisonDisease" ○ "Adrenalglandmustbereleasingsomethingthatpreventsthisdisease" • Dolanski(1894) laidfoundationofunderstandinghormones ○ Wantedtoknowhowliverandpancreasdidit ○ Knewthatwhendogeats,assoon as foodgetsintostomach,digestivejuicesreleased ○ Thoughttheacidstimulatedtheliverandpancreastoreleasedigestivejuices ○ TookHCland injecteditintorectumofdog  Thoughtacidwouldenterintestineandsecretejuices • CharlesBrown-Sequard(1889) Frenchphysiologist,injectedhimselfwithmacerateddogtesticles ○ Believedthiswouldrejuvenatehim ○ Whenremovedtestesfromvariousanimals,theywithered,butwhenhemadeaninjectionfromthemaceratedgland backintotheanimals,theyimproved ○ Thoughtthatsomethingintestesthatmademenmanly • SirArthurConanDoyle (wroteSherlockHolmes)wasaphysician ○ ReadaboutworksofBrown-Sequard,andwasnotafan ofhis theory ○ Wroteastory"TheAdventureoftheCreepingMan"aboutwhatBrown-Sequarddid(injectingdogtestes) • JohnRomulusBrinkleybecameaphysicianbymailorder(buyadiplomabackthen) ○ Wantedtobea rejuvenator ○ Becameagoat maceratorand injectintohumans ○ Tookgoattesticlesandimplantedinscrotumofmen ○ Gotcommentsfromthemenof howwellitworked(placebo) ○ "Goatglanddoctor" • 1895 firsthormoneisolated ○ Adrenalinextractinjectedtoraisebloodpressure • 1902 ErnestStarling injectedgroundduodenumintojugularveinofdog ○ Withinsecondsnoticedtheflowofpancreaticjuices ○ Hormonewassecretin(secretedbyduodenumandtriggersactivityinpancreas,releaseofdigestivejuices) • Hormone"stirintoaction"-releasedinonepartofthebody andtravelthroughbloodstreamtodoactionsomeplaceelse • Endocrinesystem PituitaryGland • Leaderofendocrinesystem(conductor) • Peasizedglandlocatedunderhypothalamus • Controlsmanybodyfunctions • Release1μgofhormonesperday • Releasehormonesthatthentriggerotherglandstoreleasehormones • StabilizesProlactin(hormoneusedforwomenwhentheylactate) ○ Usedforformationofmilk • Somatotropin(growthhormone) ○ Governsrateat whichhumansgrowordon't grow ○ TomThumb- midget(shortstature) ○ SandyAllen-pituitarygiant ○ RobertWadlow(1918-1940) - over8' tall,diedat22  Heartnotcapableof pumpingbloodalloverbody ○ Acromegaly-whenbonesgrowinunusualdirections ○ Andrethegiant(wrestler)7'4" ○ Todaypossibletomakehumangrowthhormone ○ Usedtobe extractedfromcadavers(corpse)butriskyand dangerousbecauseitcouldbeinfectedwithvirus ○ Medicalorgeneticconditionthatresultsinanadultheightof4'10" orshorter ○ HumanGrowthHormone  Genethatcoats theproteincanbetaken outof humangenomeandinsertedintobacterium ○ Whentheyfollowedupstudy,bloodpressureincreased ○ Plasmaglucoseincreased ○ Carpaltunnelsyndrome ○ Breastenlargementoccurred Nomeasureableimprovementsinmusclefunctionorphysicalperformanceinspiteofimprovedmuscle-fatdistribution Breastenlargementoccurred ○ Nomeasureableimprovementsinmusclefunctionorphysicalperformanceinspiteofimprovedmuscle-fatdistribution ○ Clinicspromisedrejuvenationwithhumangrowthhormone  Butitwas expensiveandclinicsweren'tchargingenough  Quackery ○ Startedtosellhumangrowthsecretors  Nothingbutaminoacids  Justusedwords,saidifyouingesttheaminoacid,humangrowthhormonewillbesecreted ○ Specificuseforhormone:usingGHtoaidhip fracturerecovery ○ BovineSomatotropin(animalhormone)-BGH  Secretedbypituitary  Canincreasemilkyieldby20%  ProducedbyrecombinantDNA  Controversial  Canadadoesn'tuseBGH  CanadahasdifferentmilkproductionthanUSA  MovementtoridBGHbecauseitisdeemedunnatural ○ PorcineSomatotropin("fatasapig")  Pig'sownGHinjectedintopig  Morerapidgrowth  Greaterproportionofmuscletofaton lessfeed • AdrenocorticotropicHormone(ACTH)- stimulatesadrenalglands • FollicleStimulatingHormone(FSH)-causeseggto bereleasedfromovaryeachmonth • ThyroidStimulatingHormone (TSH) Thyroid • Controlsmetabolism • Hypothyroidism(hypo=low) ○ Sluggishness ○ Slowheartrate ○ Tendencytoobesity ○ Coldskin/clammy ○ Underactivethyroidgland ○ Ifitdoesn'tproduceenoughthyroidhormone,itgetslarger(goiter) ○ Cabbagegoiter-ifsomeoneconsumesexcessiveamountofcabbage  Cabbagecontainsacompoundthatreducesthyroidproduction ○ Cretinism-whenmotherdoesn'thaveefficientiodineindiet,babyisbornwithunderdevelopedthyroidgland(affects brain,physicalappearance) ○ Synthroid(drugtotreatmenthypothyroidism) • Hyperthyroidism ○ Anxiety ○ Nervousness ○ Rapidpulse ○ Fatigue ○ Weightloss ○ Usethyroidhormones ○ GravesDisease  Protrudingeyes  GeorgeandBarbaraBushsufferedfromGravesDisease ○ Treatmentofhyperthyroidism ○ Drugsthat blockhormoneformation(methimazole) ○ Radioactiveiodine(I-131)  Willdestroysomeofthethyroidgland(permanentlydestroyed) ○ Surgery • Parathyroid • Parathyroid • Togetherwiththyroidregulatecalciumandphosphorousmetabolism • Ex:boneismadeofcalciumand phosphorous • Calciuminintestinegetsabsorbedintoplasmacalcium • Inorderto beabsorbed,youneedvitaminD • Amountofcalciuminbloodisregulatedinkidn
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