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CHEM 183
David Harpp

September 6, 2011 Chemistry of Drugs: Lecture 1 – History of Drugs  Urine analysis: GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy) Eradication of Disease  smallpox (virus): Vaccination  polio eradicated in 1991  leprosy (Hansen’s disease)  guinea worm disease (a flea carries nematode larvae) o water containing water fleas infected with worm larvae o worms move through body and come through skin o solution: filtered water  chagas disease (assassin bugs) o parasite o symptoms come after 10-20 years: fever, swelling o delivered from feces of the animal/bug o trypanosome cruzi controlled by molecule that suppresses a cysteine protease crucial for this parasite (k777) History of drugs  Balloon angioplasty to widen the esophagus  Sedatives: Librium and valium needed with fungal agent  A drug is a chemical agent that affects living matter.  Sumerians 2,200 BC: 16 beer recipes o Focused on plant materials, tried to exclude superstition  Baldness cured by fat of snake, lion, hippo  Night blindness cured by ox liver (vitamin A)  Crying babies cured by poppy juice and excremental flies  Testing – FDA clinical trials are the “gold standard”  The placebo effect/response: what people respond to. “take the drug until you feel better”  Dioscorides 40-90 AD: interested in plants o Beet, strawberry, opium, wormwood, absinthe, arum dioscorides  Di Materia Medica – a book o Passum: sweet drink from wine. Diuretic.  Pharmakon: pharmakeutes drug. Origin of pharmacy  Avicenna, Maimonides o Prescribed the broth of fowl to treat hemorrhoids, leprosy, constipation and colds  Paracelcus o invented ether as anesthetic September 6, 2011 o railed against doctrine of humors (blood to air, phlemn to water, etc.) o introduced chemical treatments for disease o opposed polypharmacy (take something else if one thing doesn’t work)  ABT-594 from frogs is 200x more effective than morphine. A non-addictive painkiller.  Mandrake root: resembles a person. The plant would kill the person that pulled the mandrake plant out (superstition) – thus they used a dog to pull it out.  Jakob Bohme: “The Signature of All Things” – God created everything that resembles what is good. o For example: walnuts are good for the brain o Hepatica acutiloba may be good for the liver o Eupatorium perfoliatum may be used to heal bones (the stem grows through the leaves so strong stems) o Carrots are good for the eyes o Bezoar stone is an antidote for the black plague  Ipecac induces vomiting (plant remedy)  Aconite: poison  Foxglove (William Withering) – dropsy: congestive heart failure Malaria: A parasitic disease - 6/380 species of Anopheline mosquitos transmit the disease - Early cure: quinine, a South American plant - Later: DDT, which saved millions of lives but was banned (temporarily) Syphilis: “The Great Pox” - Plagues associated with “bad air” - Pulex irritans: flea that bred on rats Dr. Joseph Lister: sprayed phenol during childbirth to kill bacteria on the floor. Eventually found that washing hands and wearing gloves
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