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CHEM 183 (143)
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WOC Drugs Tobacco.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 183
Professor
David Harpp
Semester
Fall

Description
Chem of drugs: Tobacco  Kills more than aids, alcohol…  If people stopped smoking, the average life span in north America would go up 10 years  In north America, smoking causes 400k deaths annually (eczema, lung cancer)  Canada: 20% smoke. Quebec: 25%. BC: 16%  Yukon 35.5% NWT 35.7% Nunavut 61.3%  November 12, 1492: Columbus discovered natives rolling leaves called Tabbagos.  Jean Nicot: introduced Tobacco to France. (Nicotine)  Tobacco Resuscitator 1774 for reviving persons “apparently dead” (for drunk people)  They believed it was beneficial!  Smoked in pipes initially. Not inhaled. Because tobacco smoke was too harsh, so pipes also had a long stem.  Snuffing: mostly by women.  Chewing tobacco: very popular in NA during colonial times. Lower class chewed, upper class snuffed.  La Cometa – Goya (a painting). Cigarettes introduced in 19 century. Became popular in Crimean War 1853-1856  Bonsack machine 1880: rolled cigarettes. 2000 cigarettes/minute. o More people could afford cigarettes now  Early 1900’s; flue-curing process, so cigarette smoke became less harsh  Due to these two circumstances, people started smoking more and inhaling the smoke. Early 20 century.  1913: Camel cigarette. First cigarette to use flue-curing process. American cancer society also found haha  Early cigarettes came from Turkey  Late 1800’s: 50 cigarettes/year/person  Today: 10,000 cigarettes/year/person  4800 chemicals in cigarettes. 400 toxic, 40 carcinogenic!  Short term effects : o Nicotine  2mg required to retain dependency (people who are addicted need 2mg/day)  Low dose: stimulates central nervous system. Stimulant.  High dose: relaxes CNS: relaxant.  Acetylcholine receptors. High dose: blocked receptor. Low dose: activated receptor.  Can be used as pesticide. 60mg tobacco. Lethal dose!  There are 120mg in a cigar!!!  Also acts on dopamine  Sigmund Freud addicted to tobacco.  Long term effects: o Nicotine problem on heart o Carbon monoxide ties onto haemoglobin. o The number 1 cause of death associated with smoking is not lung cancer: it is heart disease.  Decreased oxygen uptake  Increased heart rate and blood pressure  Increased arterial walls injuries  Increased blood clotting  Rene Leveque and his wife both smoked and died from heart disease. o Asthma o Emphysema o Lung cancer o These scar the lungs!!  Alton Ochsner 1919: first to relate lung cancer to smoking o Then 400 cases/year o Today 150k cases/year  In terms of death rate, the #1 cause of cancer death in women is not breast cancer, it is lung cancer.  Lung cancer in women: 1961 #8, 1977 #2, 1987, #1 (cancer death) not cancer. In terms of cancer, it is breast cancer that is highest.  Women started smoking later than men, in 1930s.  When you smoke, you burn more calories. That’s how it was marketed to women.  Smoking increases wrinkles (smoke in your eyes?). Smoking affects an enzyme called MMP-1. Increase of this enzyme causes the breakdown of collagen.  Secondhand smoke led to o Ban on smoking in public places Quebec June 1999 o Ban on smoking bars and restaurants Quebec June 2006  Advertising #6 billion  Marlboro: Wayne McLaran died in 1992 age 51. Advertised for Marlboro. As part of his contract, he had to smoke Marlboro.  Yul Brunner, a smoker, knew he was going to die. He recorded a piece to go on TV just before he was to die. Told people to stop smoking.  Smokers 15-19: Canada 14% down, Quebec 20% up.  Litigation o Cippollone vs. Liggett, Lorillard and Phillip Morris 1993. Cippollone developed lung cancer and wanted to sue the tobacco company. o Tobacco companies knew of dangers as early as 1946. Less dangerous cigarette developed but never marketed. In 1988 the estate won $400,000 o Case dropped by the Cippollone estate in 1998 because it was too expensive. o Very rich tobacco company! o $204 billion 1998 agreement with cigarette makers, invest $204 billion over 25 years in states to prevent people smoking.  Medical payments, liability, smoking cessation, youth smoking, punitive damage.  But many states did not use it for this purpose. o Advertising restrictions o Jeffrey Wigand: said that tobacco companies artificially increase levels of nicotine to ensure customers o 1994 CEOs of tobacco companies had to testify in congress. Asked if Nicotine is addictive, they all swore that nicotine was not addictive. o Nicotine addiction:  Dependence, intoxication, withdrawal, tolerance. (not so much intoxication) o Class action lawsuits. o Brian Curtis: died due to cancer. Video of him dying shown to jury to give money to people who wanted to take action against cigarette companies. o Illegal to make cultural events named after cigarettes. So cigarette companies made their company names the name of cigarettes. Store Displays - Companies would pay depending on how much tobacco was displayed. $20000 for one drugstore! - Ban on advertising lifted in 1995, replaced by Bill C-74 (1997) o Access, labeling, restricted advertising (no billboards, no lifestyle ads, print advertising permitted in “adult” magazines), promotion, restricted sponsorship - For sport events, advertising only permitted in the bottom 10% of promotional displays. (Canada) o Smokers 1965: 50% population smoke. Today: 20% but tobacco companies are not suffering. Their profits still go up because it’s been replaced by smokers worldwide in other places, 385 million smokers. o Zyban, an antidepressant. Known to be helpful to stop smokin
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