Chem of drugs: Tobacco
Kills more than aids, alcohol…
If people stopped smoking, the average life span in north America would go up 10 years
In north America, smoking causes 400k deaths annually (eczema, lung cancer)
Canada: 20% smoke. Quebec: 25%. BC: 16%
Yukon 35.5% NWT 35.7% Nunavut 61.3%
November 12, 1492: Columbus discovered natives rolling leaves called Tabbagos.
Jean Nicot: introduced Tobacco to France. (Nicotine)
Tobacco Resuscitator 1774 for reviving persons “apparently dead” (for drunk people)
They believed it was beneficial!
Smoked in pipes initially. Not inhaled. Because tobacco smoke was too harsh, so pipes
also had a long stem.
Snuffing: mostly by women.
Chewing tobacco: very popular in NA during colonial times. Lower class chewed, upper
La Cometa – Goya (a painting). Cigarettes introduced in 19 century. Became popular in
Crimean War 1853-1856
Bonsack machine 1880: rolled cigarettes. 2000 cigarettes/minute.
o More people could afford cigarettes now
Early 1900’s; flue-curing process, so cigarette smoke became less harsh
Due to these two circumstances, people started smoking more and inhaling the
smoke. Early 20 century.
1913: Camel cigarette. First cigarette to use flue-curing process. American cancer society
also found haha
Early cigarettes came from Turkey
Late 1800’s: 50 cigarettes/year/person
Today: 10,000 cigarettes/year/person
4800 chemicals in cigarettes. 400 toxic, 40 carcinogenic!
Short term effects :
2mg required to retain dependency (people who are addicted need
Low dose: stimulates central nervous system. Stimulant.
High dose: relaxes CNS: relaxant.
Acetylcholine receptors. High dose: blocked receptor. Low dose: activated
Can be used as pesticide. 60mg tobacco. Lethal dose!
There are 120mg in a cigar!!!
Also acts on dopamine Sigmund Freud addicted to tobacco.
Long term effects:
o Nicotine problem on heart
o Carbon monoxide ties onto haemoglobin.
o The number 1 cause of death associated with smoking is not lung cancer: it is
Decreased oxygen uptake
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Increased arterial walls injuries
Increased blood clotting
Rene Leveque and his wife both smoked and died from heart disease.
o Lung cancer
o These scar the lungs!!
Alton Ochsner 1919: first to relate lung cancer to smoking
o Then 400 cases/year
o Today 150k cases/year
In terms of death rate, the #1 cause of cancer death in women is not breast cancer, it is
Lung cancer in women: 1961 #8, 1977 #2, 1987, #1 (cancer death) not cancer. In terms of
cancer, it is breast cancer that is highest.
Women started smoking later than men, in 1930s.
When you smoke, you burn more calories. That’s how it was marketed to women.
Smoking increases wrinkles (smoke in your eyes?). Smoking affects an enzyme called
MMP-1. Increase of this enzyme causes the breakdown of collagen.
Secondhand smoke led to
o Ban on smoking in public places Quebec June 1999
o Ban on smoking bars and restaurants Quebec June 2006
Advertising #6 billion
Marlboro: Wayne McLaran died in 1992 age 51. Advertised for Marlboro. As part of his
contract, he had to smoke Marlboro.
Yul Brunner, a smoker, knew he was going to die. He recorded a piece to go on TV just
before he was to die. Told people to stop smoking.
Smokers 15-19: Canada 14% down, Quebec 20% up.
o Cippollone vs. Liggett, Lorillard and Phillip Morris 1993. Cippollone developed
lung cancer and wanted to sue the tobacco company.
o Tobacco companies knew of dangers as early as 1946. Less dangerous cigarette
developed but never marketed. In 1988 the estate won $400,000 o Case dropped by the Cippollone estate in 1998 because it was too expensive.
o Very rich tobacco company!
o $204 billion 1998 agreement with cigarette makers, invest $204 billion over 25
years in states to prevent people smoking.
Medical payments, liability, smoking cessation, youth smoking, punitive
But many states did not use it for this purpose.
o Advertising restrictions
o Jeffrey Wigand: said that tobacco companies artificially increase levels of
nicotine to ensure customers
o 1994 CEOs of tobacco companies had to testify in congress. Asked if Nicotine is
addictive, they all swore that nicotine was not addictive.
o Nicotine addiction:
Dependence, intoxication, withdrawal, tolerance. (not so much
o Class action lawsuits.
o Brian Curtis: died due to cancer. Video of him dying shown to jury to give money
to people who wanted to take action against cigarette companies.
o Illegal to make cultural events named after cigarettes. So cigarette companies
made their company names the name of cigarettes.
- Companies would pay depending on how much tobacco was displayed. $20000 for one
- Ban on advertising lifted in 1995, replaced by Bill C-74 (1997)
o Access, labeling, restricted advertising (no billboards, no lifestyle ads, print
advertising permitted in “adult” magazines), promotion, restricted sponsorship
- For sport events, advertising only permitted in the bottom 10% of promotional displays.
o Smokers 1965: 50% population smoke. Today: 20% but tobacco companies are not
suffering. Their profits still go up because it’s been replaced by smokers worldwide in
other places, 385 million smokers.
o Zyban, an antidepressant. Known to be helpful to stop smokin