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Inorganic Chemistry, Gary L. Miessler, Donald A. Tarr Chem 212 textbook Chapter 1

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CHEM 212
Richard Oakley

11 If organic chemistry is defined as the chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds and their derivatives inorganic chemistry can be described broadly as the chemistry of every WHAT IS thing else This includes all the remaining elements in the periodic table as well as car 1 NORCAN lC which plays a major role in many inorganic compounds Organometallic bon CHEMISTRY chemistry a very large and rapidly growing field bridges both areas by considering compounds containing direct metalcarbon bonds and includes catalysis of many or ganic reactions Bioinorganic chemistry bridges biochemistry and inorganic chemistry and environmental chemistry includes the study of both inorganic and organic com pounds As can be imagined the inorganic realm is extremely broad providing essen tially limitless areas for investigation 12 Some comparisons between organic and inorganic compounds are in order In both areas single double and triple covalent bonds are found as shown in Figure 11 for CONTRASTS inorganic compounds these include direct metalmetal bonds and metalcarbon bonds WITH ORGANIC However although the maximum number of bonds between two carbon atoms is three CHEMISTRY there are many compounds containing quadruple bonds between metal atoms In addition to the sigma and pi bonds common in organic chemistry quadruply bonded metal atoms contain a delta 6 bond Figure 12 a combination of one sigma bond two pi bonds and one delta bond makes up the quadruple bond The delta bond is possible in these cases because metal atoms have d orbitals to use in bonding whereas carbon has only s and p orbitals available In organic compounds hydrogen is nearly always bonded to a single carbon In inorganic compounds especially of the Group 13 IIIA elements hydrogen is fre quently encountered as a bridging atom between two or more other atoms Bridging hy drogen atoms can also occur in metal cluster compounds In these clusters hydrogen atoms form bridges across edges or faces of polyhedra of metal atoms Alkyl groups may also act as bridges in inorganic compounds a function rarely encountered in or ganic chemistry except in reaction intermediates Examples of terminal and bridging alkyl groups in inorganic compounds are shown in Figure 13 hydrogen atoms and 1 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry Organic Inorganic Organometallic 0 cO I I OCMn CH FIGURE 11 Single and Multiple Bonds in Organic and Inorganic Molecules FIGURE 12 Examples of Bonditig Interactions Some of the most striking differences between the chemistry of carbon and that of many other elements are in coordination number and geometry Although carbon is usu ally limited to a maximum coordination number of four a maximum of four atoms CH4 inorganic compounds having coordination numbers of bonded to carbon as in five six seven and more are very common the most common coordination geometry is an octahedral arrangement around a central atom as shown for TF in Figure 14
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