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CIVE 446 (1)
Lecture

CIVE 446 Lecture Notes.pdf

12 Pages
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Department
Civil Engineering
Course Code
CIVE 446
Professor
William Taylor

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CIVE 446 Construction Engineering 1 C ONSTRUCTION C ONTRACTS  Project Execution Plan (PEP): Strategy (How we do?)  Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): Organization (What?)  Project Management Team (PMT)  Critical Path Method (CPM): Schedule (When?)  EconomicValueAdded(EVA)ismeasuredbytheCostPerformanceIndex(CPI),SchedulePerformance Index (SPI), and the Estimate at Completion (EAC)  General contractors in Canada typically perform only less than 15% of the work and the subcontractors perform the other 85%  Projects do not fail at the end, they fail at the beginning, i.e. way you define the objective determines the approach you will use to accomplish it  Four phases of a construction, 1. Identification: analysis of project ideas, stakeholders and of the situation and the feasibility of the proposed project 2. Definition: refinement of the scope and objectives leading to the derivation of the project plan 3. Development: expansion of the project plan, mobilizing systems, performing work activities and production of deliverables 4. Acceptance: involves the demobilization of the project leading towards customer acceptance  Lack of effective management leads to a strong possibility that crisis management will be the norm  Accountability (answer) is a combination of responsibility (performance) and authority (compliance)  Methods of accomplishing construction: 1) Owner’s Force (completed entirely in-house), 2) Owner’s Management (in-house management, subcontracted work), 3) Construction by General Contractor, 4) Design/Build & Turnkey (utilizes a design/build firm), 5) Construction Management (designers report to client, construction manager manages contractor) and 6) Project Management  Design-Build: a single contract is used to accomplish design and construction; on-time, on budget and without litigation is the rule  Design-Bid-Build: two contracts are used to accomplish design and construction (replete with cost change orders, overruns and delays) o Design-Bid-Build puts the least amount of risk on the contractor since it only requires them to do the construction services  Express Contracts and Contracts Implied in Fact: one whose terms are declared by the parties either orally or in writing at the time the agreement is made  Unilateral is a contract where by only one of the parties makes a promise VS. bilateral where there are mutual promises  In a joint contract the various obligors must be joined as a single entity VS. a several contract where each is liable for only their portion of the obligation CIVE 446 Construction Engineering 2 M ANAGING THE R OLE OF A RCHITECTS AND E NGINEERS  First step in design is to survey the land (existing buildings, etc.)  Engineers shouldn’t use general terms, since they are detailed and it should be reflected in their language  Architects follow ‘function over form’ and use functional programs to determine the function of a facility or project (stakeholder consultation)  Business Case Analysis – Functional Program – Economic Feasibility – Conceptual Design/Form/Costing  Keys to Executing an Architectural Competition: o Givethearchitect the righttoprotecttheirdesign(donot allowa‘pickandchoosemethod’ where the client selects the best attributes from each design; o Pay architects and proposal firms for their time in preparing a competition bid o One judge should be an executive in an organization or institute of architects in the province of the proposal  Design Professional: refers to a person or firm who has the qualifications to meet the prevailing laws that offer registration as a professional o Architect: a DP whose primary role is the compilation and analysis of information to create a detailed design for a project o Engineer: a DP whose role is dependent on the engineering discipline  Architect’s role is as conceptualizer, analyzing the problem and redefining it where as an engineer takes their cues from the architect’s solutions o Problem: two professions are segregated into two distinct and mutually exclusive spheres  RoleofProfessional Body:categorizemembership,technical standards,establishingcodeofethics, etc.  Project Managers should be nominated before a DP is chosen, otherwise the PM cannot be effective in managing the project (architect will take over, cost overruns, etc.) o PMs should also be involved in the preparation of the request for proposal (RFP) or the selection process for the DPs o Demonstrate a pro-active approach to project management by holding a kick-off meeting o Advise the DPs that you expect a regular performance report from them  Ensure control over the DPs by reviewing the definitions of each role in the contract, conditions of responsibilities, the reporting of deliverables, enshrine control in contract and its application  Project control is the responsibility of the project manager and project monitoring is an action carried out by the reports to the PM o Determine what needs to be controlled and what can be controlled, distinguish between control and monitoring functions, how to perform control activities, etc. o Tier 1: scope, budget, cost, time, quality, risk, etc.; Tier 2: stakeholder relations, publicity, environmental impact, social and economic impact, etc.  Difficulties Control Maintenance: 1) Scope, 2) Resources, 3) Document, 4) Cost, 5) Time, 6) Quality  Projects become ineffective when there is a hands-off approach to PM which lets issues drift and remain unresolved o Devote too much time in one area without addressing other areas or measuring milestones by presence and not quality (being task-oriented, not results-oriented) CIVE 446 Construction Engineering  Lack of information, habitual thinking, reluctance to ask for advice, time pressures, negative attitudes, rapidly changing technology and design changes all lead to poor quality design  Virtual Team: a way of bringing people together with varying expertise who may be scattered across geography or hard to bring together in physical meetings for other reasons  Architects control schematic design, design development, construction document (drawings), bid documents, supplying of drawings and technical specifications to the contractor, etc. CIVE 446 Construction Engineering 3 A LI A SHRAF (LECTURE 1)  Vitruvius 10 Books of Architecture: Firm, Useful and Appeal (Duty to Love) -> Firmitas, Utilitas and Venustas o Were ordered for Augustus in order to rebuild Rome after a number of civil wars in the empire  One of the most famous aqueducts (Marcus Agrippa) is the Pont de Gard which spans 50 km and achieves a 17 m drop in slope was marveled for its engineering precision  Pantheon was built, destroyed ad rebuilt by Hadrian (Emperor) and is the largest dome structure from 126 a.d. to 1758  In his lost books of architecture, Vitruvius was attempting to describe proportions and ratios for building design and when the books were found Da Vinci took it upon himself to sketch them o Vitruvian Man shows proportions for archways  Today, we still face many of the same issues in engineering as we did in the past  Engineering Design: is about finding the right problem to solve, functional analysis, and must respond to a specific need (purpose), proportion, places and people o Purpose: present solutions rather than problems o Places: Building something lasting for the world o People: Taking responsibility for greater public  Engineering Stage-Gate Process (Phase Gate): is a progressive solution since it turns ideas into workable solutions by ensuring that all the requirements are met o It allows for ‘go-no go’ decisions to be made at select intervals in the project life cycle  Overdesigning to start construction quicker is called fast-tracking  Contingency is the amount for ignorance, to account for the costs of logistics (cushion for expected costs through to estimate) o Depletes with time, whereas risk costs will hopefully not be used (if there is good risk management) o Contingency estimates decrease as the design becomes more and more defined and approaches tender (all costs can be better predicted) o Contingency ∝ 1 Design Certainty  Design-Basis Memorandum is the preliminary engineering process  Case: Rabaska Terminal o Look at Each WBS Element o Break it Down to Smallest Element o Identification (What to be Done) o Project Deliverables  In any project, it is every organization for themselves (bidding process), though client relations play a major part in winning contracts  Most construction problems that go wrong are result from poor or a poorly defined scope CIVE 446 Construction Engineering 4 A LI A SHRAF (L ECTURE 2)  Political landscape is a major risk to large projects particularly when it involves large revenues  In a project it should be defined what you do, deliverables  Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (PIDs) are the most important deliverable since it shows where all instrumentation, mechanical and electrical o Since there are many interactions between trades, communication is essential (must all feed into simulations, 2D Models, 3D Models)  Health and Safety is involved in all components and is seen as a must work with public safety in mind (management must be involved in all components overlooking the process)  Overdesign may be required when the schedule requires it o Ex: for specialized equipment and do not know the exact location of the foundations the DPs must overdesign the pad with approximate size and loading considerations taken into account  Using a simple model we can look at how work activities are completed and if things stick out or clash (Is everything aligned?)  Everybody has a role to play and the right to work together to plan a proper project  What is looked for in an Engineer? o Quick learner whose flexible and adaptive at finding creative solutions o Reduces the time and work effort of others and is able to admit to better designs 5 E THICS IN PROJECT M ANAGEMENT  “You do what you know you must do and never compromise”  Purchasing Ethics: many people are not bound by professional association (PEng can expel a professional for unethical practice) and often do whatever they want o Contracts should include clauses to ensure one bidder must have done projects with the client in the past o If the client has already decided on a specific element of the project then it must be communicated to all bidders o All queries about bid MUST GO to person in charge, not the secretary  Is it ethical for a PEng who’s not preparing the plans to place a seal on them after careful review? o Must review and verify in compliance with best practices or codes and the reviewer must be specialized in the same field o Engineer can seal work they did not perform AS LONG AS they are qualified to review the work and take all the necessary steps o According to ASCE, they may be denied since they actually have to spend time in design process  Clienttakesadvantageoftheconsultant withexclusiverelationships(ifIwinyougetthejob)which is bypassed by in-house consultants o Legal action can be taken (defamation, as they are thinking that they are doing the work, breach of verbal contract)  Profession organizations can enforce ethics, though there is no ethical codes in the trades  Rules are company dependent, especially rules regarding gifts and alcohol during meetings o Usually no alcohol over lunch if they are talking about the contract and no gifts of any kind CIVE 446 Construction Engineering  Organization’s Business Culture: is the beliefs, norms and expectations that an organization requires  Business Ethics: application of general ethical concepts to the unique situations confronted in business (PM) and can be unwritten or written codes of principles o Application of business ethics is the knowing the difference between right and wrong, and choosing what is right  Organizations shape business ethical conduct by Ethical Awareness, Ethical Reasoning, Ethical Action and Ethical Leadership  Golden Rule: look for potential problems and recognize that the fundamental objective is to face up to the problems as realistically as possible (realize that you can make errors)  Treat the Customer’s money like your own and care for your project community  Do the best you can the first time and make sure you are accountable for the full project lifecycle CIVE 446 Construction Engineering 6 C ONSTRUCTION C ONTRACTS  Contacts are critical to the economic viability of the project, contractor, architect and engineer and define the scope of the work  Contracts are made up of logistical, financial, etc. components and typically follow the CCDC II Contract Format in Canada (others include FIDIC)  Fixed Cost represents a higher cost for the consultant and a lower cost for the client  Cost Plus represents a lower cost for the consultant and a higher cost for the client  Contracts have enormous implications on definitions which are critical to the survivability of the project  Substantial Completion in use or ready for use VS. total completion where the project is completely finished o Supplementary conditions override the general conditions of the contract
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