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Lecture 34 Notes.docx

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CLAS 203
Margaret Palczynski

CLAS203 Lecture 34 Notes  Saw in Iliad that the Heroic Ideal is exemplified by Achilles  Questions to think about: o Who is the best of the Achaeans?  Odysseus or Achilles? o Two different modes of agon (competition)  Odysseus competes with metis (mind);  Achilles competes with bie (strength) o Would bie be able to overcome the challenges faced by Odysseus?  Odysseus’ Attributes: o Odysseus’ epithets point to his “manyness”  Polumetis  Of many (polu-) wiles (metis)  A great cunning intelligence  Polumechanos  He will devise a stratagem (mechanos) to escape any snare  Polutropos  The man of many turns (tropos comprehends the full amphiboly of “turns” – clever turns of mind, figures (tropes) of speech, and endless actual turns of the wanderer  Polutlas  Much-suffering, much-enduring o The repetition of the prefix polu- indicates the versatility, adaptability, and mutability, that equip Odysseus for an unstable world  The structure of Odysseus’ Apologoi (stories/tales): o Twin emphasis on the dangers of lingering beyond the time of one’s departure, and of being eaten alive (forgetting nostos – returning home)  Three offices of Xenia:  To protect and house the guest;  To feed the guest;  To ensure the guest’s departure at their appointed time o Explanation of the arrangement of Odysseus’ adventures  Opposite of proper xenia  They confront him with the two extreme versions of bad hospitality, the ultimate perversion of Xenia  Defines the proper duties of Xenia through antipodal examples o Improper xenia hinders/prevents nostos (returning)  Why tell these tales to the Phaeacians?  Book x: o Odysseus arrives at Aeolus (King and master of the winds), where they are welcomed and stays. After one month, Odysseus wants to leave, receives a parting gift of a “gift of winds” with everything except the western wind which is what they need to get back to Ithica  Odysseus sleeps on the ninth day and his crew open the bag, releasing a storm taking them back to Aeolus. This time, Aeolus is not fond of hosting them again and so tells them to leave thinking they are cursed o Odysseus arrives at island of Laestrygonians  Sends some of his men in, thinks whether they will encounter men like him, what he finds instead a barbaric race who kill most of Odysseus’ men and eat them  Anthropophagous  Only Odysseus and the crew of his ship escape as their ship was outside the harbour o Odysseus and his only crew sail and make it to see Circe (magic): island of Aeaea, Hermes, ‘moly’, Telegonus  Circe welcomes the men and offers them a meal (meal was stuffed with drugs). When Circe taps them on the head, they turned into pigs. Eurylochus, suspecting a trap stays behind, when he doesn’t see men return, he returns to warn Odysseus  Odysseus goes to save his men, encounters Hermes on the way who tells him to take the moly herb to protect himself from the potion of Circe and to not sleep with her or she’ll castrate you. In addition, have her sware a binding oath to do you and your crew no harm. Circe sees Odysseus and does the same with his Odysseus and his crew but fails, recalls a prophesy, asks him to sleep with her. He makes her sware the oath and changes his men back who stay on the island for one year. Odysseus remembers his nostos through his men. Circe tells Odysseus that before he leaves, he must go to the gates of the underworld and talk to Theban seer Tiresias to find out how to return to Ithica. Tiresias tells him that he will encounter another island, and tells him to not harm the cattle or else there will n
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