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Latin Case System

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CLAS 210

CASE SYSTEM There are six cases in Latin, related to some syntax functions of the noun. Each case can be related to more than one function. NOMINATIVE :Subject /Subject complement. Ex : My sister likes snakes ; My crazy sister likes snakes ; My sister, this crazy girl, likes snakes. My sister/My crazy sister are subject in the two first sentences ; ‘this crazy girl’ is a group describing the subject (my sister) ; then it will also be expressed in the nominative case. ACCUSATIVE : Direct Object / Prepositionnal complement (after ad+ acc. (towards, to) and in+ acc. (to : when there is a movement, a direction) Ex : My sister likes snakes ; I go to school (movement) ABLATIVE : instrument, means / Prepositional complement (after ab (from =origin) ; expressing the place where you are (no movement : in + abl) ; with cum + abl. (with) He shows me the direction with his hand ; He comes from school ; He is in the classroom (no movement) DATIVE : indirect object / other functions we will see later The master gives the slave a horse. He told them to memorize the cases. GENITIVE : Possession/description (we will see it later) Cicero’s works are famous ; this is about the truth of love. VOCATIVE : Direct address Citizen, go and vote ! 2nd Declension : ANIMUS Singular Plural Nom. ANIMUS ANIMI Acc. ANIMUM ANIMOS Abl.
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