There are six cases in Latin, related to some syntax functions of the noun. Each case can
be related to more than one function.
NOMINATIVE :Subject /Subject complement.
Ex : My sister likes snakes ; My crazy sister likes snakes ; My sister, this crazy girl, likes
My sister/My crazy sister are subject in the two first sentences ; ‘this crazy girl’ is a
group describing the subject (my sister) ; then it will also be expressed in the nominative
ACCUSATIVE : Direct Object / Prepositionnal complement (after ad+ acc. (towards, to)
and in+ acc. (to : when there is a movement, a direction)
Ex : My sister likes snakes ; I go to school (movement)
ABLATIVE : instrument, means / Prepositional complement (after ab (from =origin) ;
expressing the place where you are (no movement : in + abl) ; with cum + abl. (with)
He shows me the direction with his hand ; He comes from school ; He is in the classroom
DATIVE : indirect object / other functions we will see later
The master gives the slave a horse. He told them to memorize the cases.
GENITIVE : Possession/description (we will see it later)
Cicero’s works are famous ; this is about the truth of love.
VOCATIVE : Direct address
Citizen, go and vote ! 2nd Declension : ANIMUS
Nom. ANIMUS ANIMI
Acc. ANIMUM ANIMOS