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Curriculum and Instruction
EDEC 247
Tino Bordonaro

EDEC 247 9/6/2012 1:10:00 PM EDEC 247 Policy issues in Quebec Education [email protected] TA: Jonathan Aaron Lazare [email protected] 2 essay (50%/50%) th - Oct 18 open book - Nov 29thclosed book Final (50%) Quiz T F F T F T F T T F 1. Quebec‟s tradition of public education dates back to New France? False In New France it was ran by the church and supported by the state 2. The 1960s were revolutionary because the government was reluctant to change False; the liberal party at that time embraced change 3. School boards have always been administered along linguistic lines False very recent that there are language based school board 4. QC MELS is one of the largest bureaucracies in Canada True; per capita bases it‟s very large, produce policies 5. Teachers have control over the curriculum False; teachers have more control over how to teach but little control over what to teach. Curriculum created in „79 and reformed most recently in ‟97. 6. Teachers in the classroom have the same rights as parent at home True; we have case law in QC that said teachers are like the parents in classroom. Teachers have same standard as the parents 7. An English education is accessible to English speaking student False in order to be enrolled in English school you have to have the eligibility. Bill 101. Canada charter of rights and freedom 8. Quebec is the private school capital of the world True; private schools are very popular in QC, very politically protected, very economically financed 9. Multiculturalism is QC‟s official policy False; it‟s inter-culturalism 10. All rights in QC are absolute False; not absolute but subject to reasonable limit Policy - The laws and rules that govern our education system - Laws are passed by assembly and rule is passed by an institution Issue - Problem is resolved - Issue is managed Quebec‟s Policy Priorities MELS Strategic Plan: 2009-2013 1. School retention and success 2. Professional development of teachers 3. Advancement of knowledge 4. Support learning 5. Regional development 6. Governance and regulatory policies (focus in this class) 7. Physical activities, leisure, and sports 8. Services and rapport with population The Issues - Continuity, change, reform - Dualisms - Diversity, pluralism - Governance - Rights, responsibilities - Standards, priorities - Classical, current LECTURE 2 2012/09/11 The Beginnings of Education in Québec - before the regime the education was good teacher-student ratio 1:1 - but the French system is not that much systematically governed but it was the beginning - the French regime was the beginning of “an institution” - religion institution survived throughout the history when the empires failed Overview 1. The French Regime (1663-1760) a) The French arrive in Québec - Jacques Cartier made 3 voyages - first successful settlement was the result of Champlain‟s mission b) Education in New France (NF) 2. The Conquest (1760) - post conquest, our educational system became dual system (catholic; protestant) - catholic vs. the many branches of Protestant - the catholic institution became stronger after it was challenged 3. The Québec Act (1774) 4. Education in the British Regime (1763) a) Constitutional Act (1791) b) Act for the Est. of Free Schools and the Adv. of Learning (1801) c) Fabriques Act (1824)  legislation begin to give more power to local authorities  parliament of lower Canada passed an Act which authorities the “fabriques” to devote a quarter of their budgets to the foundation and maintenance of schools (institutions that are already recognized)  it was not popular and fabrique schools was never numerous d) Syndics Act (1829)  for the encouragement of Elementary Education  a board of trustee will be elected to control and mange the school in each parish  Government will pay for the construction of schools and the salary of the teachers  This applied to fabrique, private, religious schools  However the legislation still hold over control by requiring an annual report  This was not approved after 1836 because of the government crisis  New principals: o State intervention o Decentralization o The diversity of educational institution 5. The Durham Report (1839) a) Recommendations regarding the political situation b) Recommendations regarding Education c) Govt's Response LECTURE 4 2012/09/18 Dual-Denominationalism and Confederation 1. The Common School Act (1841) A) Creation of Common School Boards throughout the province  Creation of the superintendent of public instruction B) Granted religious minorities (RCs and Prot.s) the right to dissent 2. The Education Act (1846) a) Confessional Boards in Urban Areas b) Three types of school boards in Québec prior to confederation  The Education Act repeals the Common School Act of 1841 and re-establishes Canada East and West as responsible for education. It continues to provide for separate schools in Canada West and dissentient schools in Canada East.  In Montreal and Quebec City, there would be two elected boards of school commissioners, one Catholic and the other Protestant, with both types serving its own religious community. Throughout the rest of Quebec, the arrangement was different, as segregation was voluntary, with only one set of "common" schools run by elected Catholic and Protestant school boards, but, if the "common" school proved unacceptable to the minority denomination (usually Protestant), the religious minority could withdraw from the "common" school, and establish a school of its own religious preference 3. Confederation and the BNA Act (1867) a) Protestant Concerns  The religious minority can withdrawal from common school and establish a school of its own religious preference b) Section 93 of the BNA Act  gives the province exclusive jurisdiction in educational matters  guaranteed the rights and privileges recognized by existing law with regard to confessional schools 4. Implication of Confederation on Québec Education Dissentient were not common according to the law. The problem with immigrants 1. Differences between RC and Prot. Schools a. religion  RC had more people because it was a oral religion  C is a collected top-down religion (listen)  Protestant is a bottom-up (emphasis on reading)  Prot. Separated and reformed the church, they turn to the bible  Catholic schools were religious, rely on the pope  Protestant schools were less institutional B. language  Prot. Mostly English and catholic schools were French  International language were French up till the industrial revolution. English were language of commerce and opportunity. C. Orientation  Catholic schools were more classical and traditional  Prot. Had more progressive and forward looking classes D. Structure  Catholic and Prot. students went to 7 years of elementary  Prot. Went to 4 years of high school and to university  Catholic went to 8 yrs of rigorous pre-university program E. Immigration were attracted to the English Prot. System  It‟s more pratical; less time, less money  Immigrants went to the prot. School because of length of school year 2. Irish immigrant - mostly catholic; spoke English - they attended the French catholic schools - after generations, those who can afford will go to private education - Irish open first English catholic high school in 1931 - school and board matter most to the Irish community 3. Jewish Immigrants - did not have a system of Jewish public school - never existed even now. Even jewish schools now are Jewish private schools that are like public a) conflicts between Jew and protestants  more Jews than prot. in the prot. School  they wanted more jewish presence in the administration; but the prot. School board wanted to protect the prot. character  They hired lawyer because they feel they‟re been denied opportunity to advance their careers  Court sided with prot. The problem is not that the board is protestant but the community is jewish. The court says for educational purposes, the Jews will be regarded prot. This made both side unhappy. b) The education Act (1903)  The court declares that Jews will be regarded as prot. c) The Hirsch Case (1928)  landmark case. The first serious case that looked at sec 28 of BNA act 1 d) Jewish day schools  E) lessons learned from the Hirsch case Lecture 6 2012/09/25 Quiet Revolution Read Page 106 The Reforms of the 1960s Overview 1. Establishment of a Ministère de l‟éducation du Québec (MEQ)  bill 60 (1964) Before that Québec did not have any ministry  council were divided into 2 (Christian and protestant)  very powerful  to have a central and governing body 2. Structural Reforms  elementary years reduced to 6 years  5 years of secondary – 1 year elementary + 2 years of cegep meaning students can enroll in university 2 years sooner (catholic 7+8); protestant start later (7+5) 3. A Reformed Pedagogy  how we teach  very traditional on the catholic side; wanted to focus on the student  teachers were expected to know the subject well and how to teach. (must know the cognitive of the child) 4. Increased Accessibility – operation 55 (65‟-70‟)  comprehensive high school  why big school? o Save money o Serve large geographic area o Students learn trade, PE, o Choice of classes; Cafeteria model of high school (pick and choose) o 55 french; 9 english o elementary (change how student was taught); high school (give students as much choice) 5. Reforms in Teacher Preparation  in order for the changes to implemented  the ways the teachers were trained were greatly reformed  make it a professional developmental program  a) Bachelor of Education  b) diploma in Education 6. Reforms in Higher Education  a) the creation of the CEGEP system (DAWSON)  uniform, standardized, English, French  beginning of the dual linguistic instead of dual system  b) creation a satellite public university system (U de Quebec)
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