Title: the compelling effects of compulsory schooling: evidence from canada. Main hypotheses/questions: what are the effects and benefits of compulsory schooling in canada, to provide an alternative framework to evaluate the merits of compulsory schooling. Main results: allowing for exemptions for minimum school leaving age decreases grade, effects on income and grade attainment occur very soon after increases in school attainment leaving age, effects of returns to increasing compulsory schooling increases over time. In terms of socioeconomic outcomes, increases in compulsory schooling: increases reports of full-time occupations and job searching, increases probability of working in clerical occupations, decreases probability of falling below statistics canada"s low income. Cut-off: an additional year of compulsory schooling will have an increase in annual income by 9-15%, and possess better skills, such as bilingualism and better work ethic. These changes are nearly uniform across cohorts and geographic regions: the opportunity cost of forgoing additional education by dropping out is very high because of these benefits.