RELG 207 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Oral Torah, Mishnah, Ketuvim

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June 10, 2015
Hebrew Bible (TaNaKh) [Old Testament]
Five Books of Moses (Torah)
Books of prophets (Neviim)
Writings (Ketuvim) History of Israel
The Identification of Israel = The Ark of the Covenant and the Tablets of Stone with the Ten
The Ten Commandments are:
1) I am the LORD your God: you shall not have strange gods before me
2) You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain
3) Remember to keep holy the LORDs day (Shabbat)
4) Honour your father and your mother
5) You shall not kill
6) You shall not commit adultery
7) You shall not steal
8) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour
9) You shall not covet your neighbours wife
10) You shall not covet your neighbours goods
Sin means missing the markthat God assigned to you as the chosen people; your
commitment to the law of God is your commit not to miss the mark; your essence in itself
is not sinful because you are made that way but when you behave then you reach to
become sinful (when you act on your own, you risk to miss the mark
Image: Adam and Eve; the expulsion from Eden; The worst sinful action you could ever
perform is : PRIDE (ex: The worst sin Adam performed was to be so proud that he thought
that he could judge by himself what was right and wrong ; It is GODs commandments that
say what is right or wrong) If you decide on your own, you do not recognize God
Oral Torah:
Mishnah, Gemara, other writings
Mishnah + Gemara = Talmud
Talmud of Israel and Talmud of Babylonia
The oral tradition want the possibility to be connected with God directly, it is something
tragic in itself because the connection with God was lost
The oral tradition started after the second temple was constructed
Mishnah: (Report)
200 CE:
1) Seeds: it deals with agricultural law (Jews were mostly farmers)
2)Seasons: It deals with the holy days, for instance, the Sabbath
3)Women: It deals with the marriage and divorce and other vows
4)Damages it is a juristic text
5)Holy things: it deals with practices performed in the temple and offerings
6)Ritual of purity: It covers the complex system of rituals for purification of people,
places, meals
Gemara: (Commentaries of the report)
It comprises (as second section of the Oral Torah), the rabbinic commentaries
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