Obesity: excessive amount of body fat relative to body weight. Prevalence of over weight and obesity vary among countries: us: 34% obese. Android: males > female, apple shape, localization of fat mainly upper body. Gynoid: females > males, pear shape, localization of fat in lower body. Gynoid less dangerous than android b/c: location of organs, gynoid fat associated with hormone production. Over eating: pos. energy balance: cal in > cal out, 3500 cal = 1 pound, energy store/lost depending on energy balance. Measure of minimal energy needed to maintain basic/essential physiological functions sustain life functions. Varies: age, gender, body size, body composition. Energy required to maintain essential physiological processes in relaxed, awake and reclined state. (bmr or rmr) + dietary thermogenesis (energy needed for digesting, absorbing, transporting, metabolizing food) + pa. Management doesn"t always mean loss, client may want to gain weight (pos. energy balance) Neg energy balance best achieved through dietary restriction & exercise.