Class Notes (810,825)
Canada (494,305)
EDEE 280 (32)

Class 23

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McGill University
Elementary Education
EDEE 280
Paul Zanazanian

Class 23: Canada Stands Firm: Sovereignty and Patration  background context o Quebec/Canada in the 1980s  economic recession  mounting public debt; Western countries were investing more and more to help citizens cope with the difficulties, so the welfare state was becoming bigger and bigger; purpose of welfare state being put into question with this recession’ production, employment & earnings went below normal levels but prices were going up and the GDP was going down  rise of neo-liberalism  this was a response to the recession; favoured free trade, privatization, government intervention, reduced public expenditures on business; the state is apart of the solution; deprivatize certain companies; cut back on social services  Margaret Thatcher  Ronald Regan  former Hollywood star who became a Republican  Brian Mulroney  free trade  promote trade between Canada & USA with least tariffs as possible; negotiated between Mulroney & Regan in 1987  sovereignty-association referendum – May 20 , 1980 o held by Levesque and the Parti Quebecois  promised to hold a referendum when elected in 1976  not on independence, on sovereignty  didn’t want to fully go on their own  would vote to give permission to begin government to start negotiations with Ottawa on sovereignty  still wanted an economic union with Canada  would have a second referendum to make sure people were okay with the conditions/agreement that Ottawa and Quebec would come up with o main arguments:  the yes side  quiet revolution proved they were knowledgeable people that could take things into their own hands  ready & able for responsibilities  had talents and resources that shouldn’t be wasted  the no side  wouldn’t bring any immediate changes  economic risks  yes victory would provoke unexpected surprises  a lot of change in political economic status of French Canadians, so their status was improving & wanted to give it more time o results: 60% say no o outcome  a lot of businesses left because they got scared  150 corporations went to Toronto, and this helped it became Canada’s main economic powerhouse  the Constitution Act (1982) o Trudeau and the patriation of the Canadian constitution  wanted to deal with Quebec’s economic concerns  3 aims:  promised to bring back the constitution  to create effective amending formula for future constitutional changes  add charter of rights and freedoms  does Ottawa have the right to patriate the constitution on its own?  finally gave ultimatum  come up with a compromise or I will do it alone o the “Night of the Long Knives”  Trudeau brought premiers together and came up with an agreement between them all  Rene Levesque was asleep so didn’t attend o becomes law on April 17 1982  Queen Elizabeth came and signed it at a ceremony with Trudeau o main contents  same as BNA act but with amendments  Canada now responsible for making an amendments that they wanted to  2 main aspects:  Charter of Rights & Freedoms  including official languages respected  Multiculturalism Policy  concession had to be made for this to be passed  added a not withstanding cause in which a province can veto/overrule something in the charter if it is threatening their rights as a province  The Meech Lake Accord o Mulroney (1939-) & his constitutional objectives  to convince Quebec to support the Canadian Constitution  convince separatists  wanted to represent diversity so brought in a bunch of different
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