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Journal Entry 7

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English (Arts)
ENGL 345
Nathalie Cooke

Ballad Traditionally, an unlimited number of quatrains in either alternating tetrameter and trimeter lines, or all tetrameter lines with either abcb or abab in terms of rhyme. Utilizes a lot of repetition. (Braid & Shreve) - Born from lyrical mistrals, highly complex and quick. They exist to be enjoyed by your average man. - They attempt to relate some narrative about a famous person/someone of note. - A lot of the older ones did not have one author, but were instead modified by the many performers who sung them. This tradition of song is the primary reason why they have so much repetition and might make use of refrain. - The ballad is thought of as being a lesser form of poem, because it does not get into deep, spiritual, philosophical issues but instead tells an interesting tale of physical love, tragedy and folk heroics. - The simplicity makes it a weaker form: it can't address the mind or spirit. Example: "The Ballad of Bonny Barbara Allan:" Broadside ballad version of Bonny Barbara Allan. - About love and scorn: Graeme loves Barbara, but she refuses to forgive him for having slighted her, so he dies of love sickness. Once this happens, she resolves to return the favor and die for him as well. - References the Bible and the separation from society/resignation to death. Isaiah is forgiven, and so he lives longer. Graeme is not, so he dies. - Traditional, in that there are 4 lines/stanza and it alternates between tetrameter and trimeter. There is a lot of slightly varied repetition > helps the singer memorize. - There are many different versions, including the broadside poem. - These exist now only in high literary form > sentimental ballad. Activity: "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" - 4-line stanzas, ABCB and one AABB - This form was likely chosen for Cash's song both because of the content and because of the fact that it is easy to remember/sing and thus catchy. - Tells, through the use of common words and themes, the story of Ira Hayes (one figure), the common man. Blank Verse - Written in unrhymed iambic pentameter: very natural to read, because it is modeled after human speech. This is very common in Shakespeare. - Can be nine or eleven syllables instead of ten. - Started as a dialogue in dramas; you can see it across many forms. - Very easy to recite, however it can get monotonous. Poets have tried to overcome this monotony by making changes or using literary techniques such as enjambment {a phrase or sentence that is not complete in one line and must be carried over into the next.} - Merchant of Venice: Portia's Monologue < this is blank verse. - Milton's Paradise Lost < this is as well, though Milton keeps you reading and doesn't allow you to pause. - We also talked about Frost and Hart Crane's "To Brooklyn Bridge." - blank verse is easy to catch. - Taylor Mali "What Teachers Make" Blues - Origin: African folk music. In order to keep their heads up and express their sadness with being forced to slave away in the fields. - Today, it's more often about loss of physical love and despair - Tercets and quatrains are standard. In tercets, there are often four strong accents per line. They are of no particular length (one to infinity stanzas), and the rhyme scheme is often aaa or a less common aab. There's no set scheme when it's not in tercet. - There is a lot of repetition: if you divorce it from the music, it can easily get boring. - It is largely simple diction: there are not a lot of flowery words. "A lot of times, the author is aware that their emotions are so profound that they can't be understood by anyone who hasn't felt the same thing." "Conjured" by Nathanial Dett - Comedic relief is common. - In quatrains, there are often two accents. - In blues, it is likely that you will track the downbeats, because the others don't matter as much. "Life is Fine" and "Refugee Blues" Life is Fine By: Langston Hughes Refugee Blues By: W. H. Auden - Our table put together both poems, but Hughes' came first Rockin’ a Man Stone Blind By: Carolyn Beard Whitlow - Focused on physical love rather than the spiritual; lusty and humorous. Links to further explication: Concrete Poetry - The significance depends on what the poem looks like. - Originated in Brazil and Germany - comes from beat poets. - The general idea (of poetry in shapes) dates back to Ancient Greece, but this specific kind (of poetry being only visual) is fairly new. Shape and visual are the two different types: shape can be read whereas visual is a piece of art. "The Slow Train" - The words are places in whatever shape you'd like in order to present the central message. E.E. Cummings "Grasshopper" - You can't get a sense of the poem by reading it, it must be something you see - One advantage of the poem is that you can get a sense of what it's about with just a glance. - It's really difficult to show kinetic movements, and you can't read it out loud even though poetry is an oral tradition. This manages to convey the hopping of a grasshopper. Lewis Carroll "A Mouse's Tail" - Shaped like a mouse's tail and the poem breaks down to the word "death." George Herbert "Easter Wings" g Couplet - Two lines of rhyming verse. - Some have endstopping, where the pair can encapsulate the meaning. - There's a tendency to put the emotional words at the end of the line. - Use of caesura: notion of a pause in the middle. This creates a balance. - Michael Drayton introduced the notion of having meaning. - Couplets have existed for a long time. The basic, most early form consisted of two lines that exist as a unit and allow for rhythm. - Heroic couplet: allows the conclusion of a sonnet to be strong/empathetic through the use of iambic pentameter. - Short couplet: iambic tetrameter. - Closed couplet: these are complete in sense and syntax, where open couplets use enjambment. - The element of emotion, a musical & lyrical element, was added. Musicality and fluidity can create an analytical balance. - Through the connectivity of the two lines, they are shown to be distinct from the other bits of the poem. William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet - final couplet - This final couplet is iambic pentameter, and thus a heroic couplet. It is a closed couplet that of course uses rhyming. The title of the plat is essentially in the final line of the poem, so though the two are clearly linked, the title isn't necessary for the understanding. Additional Reading: %20Ch.04%20%28Triumph%20of%20from%20a%20study%20of%20the%20later%29.pdf Dramatic Monologue - Involves one speaker; it's an internal argument spoken aloud for the audience. - Dramatic Monologue explores a problem from the point of psychological observation. - Insanity used to be seen as a punishment from God, but then they figured out that it was physical and that opened up many new character avenues in writing. - It reveals the inner life of the speaker. - This is often confused with a soliloquy > there lines are directed to themselves. - Height of popularity was in the Victorian era: My Last Duchess and Ulysses, The Wanderer and Seafarer. Several Modernist poets. - The decline in use was attributed to increasing political goings-on. - Browning contributed highly and explored the psyche. My Last Duchess - He placed the poem in the 17th Century, but we read it through the 19th Century's debates. - The Duke prefers his wife as a painting, because he likes the amount of control he can exercise over her and the fact that he can hide her away from the world as he wills. - Written in iambic pentameter, AABB > heroic couplets, but sometimes they are enjambed (open couplets). - The tone and the pace contribute to the meaning of the writing. - This form is intended to divulge information about the character. - The poem doesn't say how she died, but it is implied that he killed her. - Analyze the form and structure as well when reading this in order to gain a greater understanding of the character, but do not confuse the author and the speaker. - For our activity, we were to analyze the character of the speaker in Porphyria's Lover. - Short couplets, ababb; written in iambic tetrameter. - Told from the point of view of Porphyria's murderous lover after he has killed her. - He sees her death as her having given herself to him forever. - He wanted to keep her exactly as she was in order to perserve the moment. - He doesn't see anything wrong with what he's done; she is not a human being, she is an object. - He emphasizes the fact that she felt no pain. > that is not what he wanted, he is not sadistic. Other groups looked at: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock - The style is nervous and scattered and sometimes fades in and out of structured. Loxley Hall - Pining for lost love, a soldier whose values don't agree with those of the current society, which makes him very tragic. His speech is like a rocking horse, and there is one line where he finally snaps, though it could not be agreed upon which line. Lady Lazarus - Themes of rebirth and dying... it builds up and stops through the use of endstop and enjambment. Male oppression against women; it's like a show. We're unravelling the shroud (as of the Biblical Lazarus) of the rich character of this lady. It is almost like a nursery rhyme with political statements. - Dramatic Monologue grows with you: you must be attuned to the tone of the speaker and very attentive in order to appreciate it fully. - The Pauper Witch of Grafton was mentioned as well. - Further reading: In Fine Form: 278 Elegy my father moved through dooms of love - Very somber, mournful; lamenting the death of a personality. - Connected back to the flute, and even further back to the ancient greek gods. - In terms of Greek/Latin literature, it's any poem written in elegaics (alternating hexameter and pentameter). - Now, the term simply represents any lament for a person. Meter is optional. An Elegy written in a Country Church Yard - This poem is lyrical, not narrative: it expresses feeling rather than tell a story. - The speaker sees a churchyard and wonders about morality. - This is actually in the cemetary of the churchyard where Gray was buried. - 4-line stanzas, abab, written in iambic pentameter: thus this is heroic quatrain. - Our group was tasked with reassembling the third part of this poem, which we did largely by matching the rhyme scheme and then checking it for meaning. - This form is a simple way to express the beauty of what we consider to be a classic roman epic poem; now it is a lament. - Further reading: Coursepack: 20 Epic - An epic is a long, narrative poem, celebrating heroes. - The hero either saves or founds a nation. - This was an oral tradition all over the world: it is recognized as one of the oldest forms of poetry. The author doesn't write the story, but simply tells it: there are many variations of the same tale, which is why they needed to be written down. - Memorizing something this grand is tricky, which is why they are broken down into shorter episodes or books. - As for the scansion, the rhyme and length are arbitrary. The meter varies by language: in English, it is iambic pentameter. - These poems have settings (either real or mythical), in the past (an unreal time: "a long, long, time ago"). The heroes embody the values of society. - The poem begins In Media Res with stating a theme and invoking the Muse. There are heroes who reoccur accross several epics, each telling of some kind of quest that they undertake. There is divine intervention. There are long, formal, boring speeches and lists of things, such as rivers or place names. Makes use of epithets, or regularly-repeated descriptions (bright-eyed Athena, the breakers of horses). Uses epic simile, which is essentially a very long simile. The Odyssey (Book 1) - The sirens: Invokes a muse, there is epithet, it introduces the theme of the poem. Paradise Lost - Written in iambic pentamenter (with a few exceptions for emphasis on certain things: he's asking us to stop and think of Man's First Disobedience (which is an epithet), to think when he invokes the muse, to think of the setting.) - He uses a lot of enjambment: you must keep reading in order to know what is going to happen. This piece has a very powerful effect, as it makes you continue through the whole thing before you can pause. - Kieran mentioned catalog, but did not write it down. - Our group came up with several epithets for Seuss' Cat in the Hat, but did not have time to formulate a whole epic beginning - "That most fastuous feline" - "The wise Pisces" - "those two children of boredom" - "the {insert varying edjectives} things of red and blue" Mock Epic - Iambic pentameter, heroic couplets. - The difference from epic is that the humor tends to be achieved through irony. The Rape of the Lock - Horatian satire and not Juvenalian satire, which is more abrasive. this is hyperbolic - Reading 75-96: she has a hairpin and spice in order to attack the baron and steal her hair back: it's all rather ridiculous. - Pope satirizes the weapon, which is a traditional part of epic. - There's a bit of a sexual fantasy, where she's in over her head. he's basically saying that the upper class families are being ridiculous. - The fatal battle scene: sartirized with a silly weapon. - Invocation: he's the guy who suggested writing the poem, not a traditional Muse at all. - Descent to the underworld: the gloomy cave of spleen. - Voyage across water: she travels down the Thames, which is just ridiculous, as it is not a quest by any means. - There is use of epic simile. - Definition of Mock Epic: burlesque imitation of heroic style in literature: a mock heroic verse, poem, etc; imitation of character, manner or actions of a hero, especially for humorous effect. - In terms of form, mock epic is no different from epic, thus it exemplifies the following characteristics: it is in iambic pentameter, it uses heroic couplets, there is an invocation to a muse, it is written in cantos, there is an epic journey/quest, it begins in medias res, there is a battle scene, it uses epic simile, etc. - Humour is achieved through contextual irony. - There are different perceptions on the work of Ben Jonson. - Mac Flecknoe, by John Dryden - Throughout the poem, we might see references to succession. - There's a grand tone and a bit of dullness. - For our group activity, we looked at a section between lines 64 to 93. - We came to the conclusion that it was subverting war by calling it a war of words, and the weapons were a scourge of wit and a flail of sense. Instead of creating heroes, it creates humorists and hypocrites. There's a play between the pen and the sword. - Further reading on Mock-heroic epic: Epigram - Short, witty poem, only about 8 lines. It can be even shorter. - Coleridge's epigram on epigrams: in FF {What is a epigram? A dwarfish whole. Its body brevity, and wit its soul.} - The force of an epigram lies in its conclusion. - All of these examples are in the book. - Bugs: 8 lines > you think it's about nature and such, but it's about killing bugs. - There are various themes. there are two forms these can take: epigraphs ofrepitaphs. - Epigraph = on a building, short, witty thing to help you remember things. - Epitaphs = humor on a headstone, such as Robert Finch's from Four Epigrams. - Generally makes use of enjambed lines. - There is a trademark clever twist at the end specific to this genre. - There is not characteristic repetition, but it is a possible tool. - For our activity, we looked at Brebeuf and his Brethren and determined which lines were metaphors and what exactly they were metaphors for (tenor and vehicle charts). - De Brebeuf and his Brethren. the metaphors: "slow and dreadful coals" (they died a slow and dreadful death) "priest savage or red indian preist" (which one is which? it's hard to tell) "human torture made a feast" (they're filling themselves with pain) "burning heretics with equal pain" (it made them suffer to accomplish this too) - Chiasmus in the final line (where you invert things, but it's not a precise reversal). - General convention is couplets. - There was both literal and figurative burning, as they were burned at the stake. - The last lines carries the whammy of the epigram: it holds the meaning of the whole poem. - Dorothy Livesay = > some epigrams really aren't all that funny, just clever. - Further reading: In Fine Form: 60 Fugue - Most have long histories and are defineable forms. - This is more modern, so less is known about it. - There is constant repetition of key phrases and themes attached to them. - After WW2, one poet heard a musical fugue and was inspired by its randomness. - Bach Toccata and Fugue in D minor on the organ: the variation between the two melodies Paul Celan's Death Fugue - Death fugue about experiences during the holocaust. - Todesfugue by Paul Celan: he interweaves phrases seemingly randomly to create meaning. - One disadvantage of the form is that it's impossible to make a narrative. - It's very abstract, and carries more of an emotion/sense. - This one is grim and gloomy. - Night Piece, by Robin Skelton in FF: there is a lot of repetition and it creates a longing effect. - There is no narrative, just an expression of longing and love. - There is a lot of controversy behind the form: it's not as recognized as other things (there's not even a wiki entry). - Some people view it as free form with repetition, but this really revolves around the repetition, and not just being free. - Fugue by Robyn Sarah: he underlined the repeating lines. The Children Are Laughing - Our task was to look at a fugue and mark all instances of repetition in the same way. - Our poem is about children who are 'laughing' < it eventually ends up within parentheses, because it's undermined and the tone is really very somber. The children obviously aren't really laughing at all. - The second poem: looks at seasons and how they progress > it enacts the notion of advancement (shorter lines, increased adjectives). - It seems to have a bit of a circularity, because it comes back to the same phrases. - It's almost a contradiction of terms; this is another refrain poem, as it both brings a reader back and advances the reader through. - Further reading: In Fine Form: 68 Ghazal - Traditionally, it's a form of short, lyrical poetry. it originates in the later 7th century. - Popular in music, especially in Urdu, Turkish, Persian and Arabic. - The metre is up to the poet, but there are usually between 5-15 lines. - Written in closed couplets; they are able to be rearranged without damaging the poem. - Monorhyme (aa, ba, ca, da...) - The authors put in their name in the last line (or an alias). Even the Rain - “Even the rain” is repeated at the end of the first two couplets, and then the second line of every couplet > monorhyme. - 13 syllables - He uses his own name int he final stanza. Traditional Ghazal - When it's in persian, it is correct, but translating it doesn't work. - History: originated in 7th C Arabia. - Popularized in the 14th C. - Anti-ghazal = metaphors. - Our group was tasked to look at Stilt Jack and determine whether it was a ghazal or an anti-ghazal. Stilt Jack - We decided that it is an anti-ghazal; each of the couplets is so closed it could be its own poem. - It's formless; there's no set rhyme/meter at all. Ghazal of the Better-Unbegun by Heather McHugh - This was the other possible poem to look at. - Monorhyme with "person." - Mostly iambic/14 syllables with a few exceptions. - She uses her name in the last stanza. - aa, ba, ca, da, ea... - Anti-ghazal is called "formless form," but it's really got a rather strict structure (couplet and lots of metaphor/imagery) - Further reading: In Fine Form: 78 Found Poetry - for a definition of found poetry The Unknown by Hart Seely - Hart Seely simply took a quote from Donald Rumsfeld on the unknown and restructured it - This makes it basically the ideal found poem. - Not held back by strict structure, (everything varies) and poetic devices are not necessary. - there are different varieties of found poetry. - Cento: made from the lines of other poems. Has existed for ages where people were taking inspiration from Virgil and Ovid. - Erasure: created by erasing words in a poem. - Cut up technique: a text is cut up and rearranged to create something new. - Flarf: random searches on google. - Spoetry: made from spam email. Wolf Cento by Simone Muench - One stanza, 14 lines, each with great variation in terms of stress and stanza. - All of the lines here are taken from other poems. - Compare this to "I google myself." I Google Myself by Mel Nichols - Looking at these two shows the diversity of the form. - As technology has progressed, so has found poetry. Elementary Treatise of Mechanics by William Whewell - This is from early on. - This from now. - A lot of people question the legitimacy of this form as being a "Real" form. A lot of people compare it to a child finding a piece of driftwood on the floor and calling it a found sculpture. - Constraints: you are kind of limited by the text, but really, you're not. - Poets are no longer confined to their own minds. - You have to be very careful about sourcing your sources. - The power of found poetry: "turning a text into a poem doubles that poem's context" - Annie Dillard - This gives us multiple ways of thinking about a poem's meaning. - Paper trail: found from scraps of paper that fell from the sky on 9/11. - Is this truly found poetry? - Yes, because you're able to add or take away as much as you like to the original poem. It differs in degree rather than form. - Knowing this gives the poem so much more power. - Activity: create found poetry in order to understand the meaning of the form. - Instead, we will have a discussion of found poetry. - For academic integrity, we would not be allowed to do this. - Poetic license is different from academic lisence. Glosa - A poem composed as an amplification of lines taken from an earlier and better-known poem, although not literally as a gloss in the explanatory sense. This is commonly a quatrain from another poem, and then a poet writes a different poem based on these four lines. These four lines are referred to as cabeza - There is no specific required form, but they sometimes follow AABB. Standard is 10 lines/stnaza, but not all follow that. 6, 9 and 10 are generally rhymed. some glozas repeat the first and last lines of each stanza. - Originated to tribute to the spanish court in particular. - Allows poets to pay homage to influential poets, but also emphasize the independent meanings of the poem. - Sometimes the original context of the poem can be lost. P.K. Page - Autumn - Rhyme scheme other than 6/9/10. There is no repetition. - This is a forced rhyme. There is also half-masculine rhyme. Forced rhyme is a half-rhyme. Lewis Turco - Western Wind: A Glose - This is an informal glosa, as there is a rhyme scheme. there are six lines per stanza, rhymed in couplets. And repetition. - Our half of the table looked at Love's Pavillion: +P.K.+Page&hl=en&ei=ZBuCTuDCKKbb0QHep7R3&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0C DIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false - We came up with the theme as being what physically happens after you die. - The other half of our table had the source poem about Death having no dominion Butchered to make a Dutchman's Holiday - Man awaiting execution: the concept of death, innocense, awaiting trial. A Glosa for Harry - Warning or an outside view of a man waiting to be executed. Look for an example of found poetry where the tone of the poem is different from the source. Haiku vs Senryu - Began in the 13th century in japan as the opening phrase of the renga. Became a form of its own in the late 1600s through Matsuo Basho's contributions. - Conscision, concrete imagery and natural content matter. - A haiku should not last for more than a breath. Sayimi Kamakura A two minute walk to the mailbox - though if I run spring must surely come. - 17 syllables or less. no particular rhyme scheme. Not always in lines of 5, 7, 5. describes experience or awe or transcendental insight. Emphasizes simplicity, intensity and directnedd of expression. It must contain a Kigo (word reference of a particular season of a year). - Most English haikus have a caesura in the middle. When the images are well-chosen, this pause allows for internal comparison. - In Japanese, the haiku appears on a single line. The syllables are counted differently, so to approximate the japanese sound, there should be no more than 17. There is variation because of this. Experimentation is inevitable. - Haikus are often confused with other forms of poetry. Senryu: - "I like to call senryu 'haiku with an attitude.' - coursepack - "Unlike haiku, which focuses primarily on the natural world, the senryu uses humor, satire to critique the human nature." - Became popular in the 1750's and can be traced back to a particular type of lined verse. - A common variation is 3-5-3. - Japanese has far fewer, which is why this is common. Knights - This is funny because girls often think of literal shining armor, and it's the character that makes a knight. - Pros: short, comical and free in form and expression. cons: offensive/inappropriate, commonly mistaken for haiku, underappreciated. - Each table receives two handouts, one displaying 6 poems, the other will be a place to put your 6 poems - You must identify them as either haiku, senryu or neither. - Write the number of the poem in the box and your reasoning why. - We divided it as 2, 3, 6 (haiku) and 1, 4, 5 (senryu) < we moved five only after we were hinted in that direction by Sarah (originally, we had 5 as neither). - Our group said 6 out loud. Further thoughts: - Why is it that so few people know of senryu whereas haiku is a very well-known form? One of the most popular poems in this format is “Haikus are easy / but sometimes they don't make sense / refrigerator.” Is it possible that this poem, which is a senryu, has confused readers? Incantation - The use of a formula of words spoken or chanted to produce a magical effect. - Repetition: common techniques include repetition of a final word or phrase. - Effect on the audience (mystifying/supernatural). - Context can be important, and this type of poetry is meant ot be performed orally, so there are limitations to what you can depict using the written word. Polanski's Macbeth - A lot of the couplets have 7 syllables instead of 8, which leaves a sense of incompletion. - The effect would have been different in Shakespeare's time because we don't believe in withcraft anymore. Sabrina's Shoes spell - It rhymes. - Went with animal themes again. - Less serious, less scary. - Made for kids where all they had to do is some up with something that rhymes, and they can be magic too Summary questions: - Two other affective forms of poetry: Blues = resilience and physical love; Elegy = mode, not a genre. seems to bring the audience along with; Fugue = repetition, brings you back and drives you through the poem. Ballad = the incremental repetition sometimes brings you back to emotions; Concrete poetry = slow train. essentially performance poetry. this got around the main problem with concrete poetry, which is that it does not show kinetic term. - Caesura = a formal pause in the middle of a line of poetry (this has been an element in a number of forms of poetry, such as couplets, ballads, haiku). It comes from Anglo-Saxon poetry. Lipogram - A composition from which a writer rejects all words that contain a letter or letters (most common is rejecting the letter e). - Gadsby = novel without e. - First use is by Joseph Addison: he criticized it. - The poetry dates back from Greek times where someone wrote the odessy without using a certain letter in each chapter. - Mary had a Little Lamb: modified without the letter s, but kept it rhyming and such. - Lippogrammatic pangram: using every letter but one in the poem/stanza. - The Fate of Nassan is one such pangram. - Does this form have any advantages? Her Other Language: - The poet has written a poem about a woman who has been beaten so that her lips are swollen. - The author emits bilabial sounds in order. - Not traditional, or particularly well-known, but it's a way for the poet to show their skill at manipulating language, which is exactly what a poet does when constrained by rhyme or meter or whatever. Class activity: We were assigned the second part of The Owl and the Pussycat and instructed to modify it so that it was a lipogram. We ended up coming up with both a summary and the first couple of lines: 'Said pussy to owl / “you fabulous fowl! / How charmingly soft you sing! / Oh! allow us to marry; too long did I tarry: / but what shall I do for a ring?” ' A pussycat and an owl thought to marry and took off in a boat for 366 days. Landing in an odd location with boutiful topiary, there stood a piggy-wig with a ring in the tip of his snout. This website has an interesting notion of antilipo – this, too, is a fun word game that could be considered poetry. Links to many more lipograms: Limerick - Edward Lear's Old Man of Kilkenny - Came from the madsong. - A light/nonsense verse, written playfully to amuse or entertain. - Humorous, witty, coarse or obscene, which can make it offensive. - Sometimes used in nursery rhyme (Hickory Dickory Dock). - Shares its name with the town in Ireland from wence it came. - Not a particularly difficult form, also it is very fun. - Derives from a pub song based on the refrain "will you come up to Limerick." - Lear popularized the form. - Many don't have a specific title, it's just the first line. - An english verse form consisting of five lines rhyming aabba, the third and fourth lines having two stresses and the other three. - Common meter is anapest, but can also be amphibrach. - Accented syllables are important, not the number of syllables (three-foot where the first two and the last is accented = anapest; second is accented where the other two aren't = amphibrach). - Internal rhyming is common. - The form has evolved in that originally sometimes four-line stanzas were used. - In the four line, the rhyme scheme is still there and he just combined lines 3 and 4. - A lot involve people or places, where the punch line/ fifth line is just an inversion of the first line. - Lines three and four are always shorter. - Our group wrote several limericks, one of which was based on the line offered to us “There once was a man from the West.” The one that I wrote went as follows: There was a young student of lit, In English 345 did she sit And pen down a poem - A limerick of her own - Though her rhyming skills were for shit. - This is a very popular form, perhaps because it is both easy and fun. List Poem - More than a list - it uses details and precise language to show the reader what the poet has noticed about a certain thing. - A kind of catalogue poem (a verse that records the names of several persons, places or things in the form of a list (common in epic)). - Characteristics: items, people, places or ideas. - There's usually repetition. rhyming is optional. the last line is the most important/funniest. Good-byes - It's hard to say goodbye to many things, but most importantly, it's hard to say goodbye to you. - Can be traced back to ancient greek times. - Catalogues in epic (in the Iliad, for example, the catalogue of ships and the comic catalogue). - Zeus is trying to flatter his wife by listing all the women he's slept with and saying that she's the best. - In the 18th and 19th C, there is a change in list poems. For I Will Consider Myself Jeoffry - Every line starts with "for" it doesn't rhyme. the whole poem has to do with his cat. - A lot more repetition, which can make the poem less interesting; catalogues can get very, very boring. Falling Down the Page (a compilation by Georgia Heard) Things to do if You're a Pencil Booktime (list of a whole bunch of places you can read, finishing with the most important line) Chorus of Four Frogs Slug File - List poems can be found anywhere. - You list groceries, homework, David Letterman's top 10... - Not all modern poetry is childish: depression is a common topic because it's a poetic form defined by repetition. - Some of them are in concrete, shaped form and some of them are just plain lists. Class activity: We were instructed to write a list poem of our own on the topic of our class. We came up with the following: These are the forms to know best: Aubade, Ballad, Blank Verse, Blues Poetry, Concrete Poem , Couplets, Dramatic Monologue, Elegy, Epigram, Found Poetry , Fugue, Ghazal, Glosa, Haiku, Senryu, Limerick, Lipogram, List Poetry. Get ready for the test! - Why is this poetry often shaped? List poetry overlaps a lot with concrete poetry. Shape is not necessary for this form, though. Lyric Poetry - Very difficult topic, because there is a lot of material to cover. - Lyric poetry expresses thoughts and feelings and it is brief, but not limiting. - They say it's short, but not how short it is. - Pronominal address: I-you poems (addresses thoughts or feelings to another), medatative (self- reflective, sometimes dealing with the dead, abstract concepts or human beings), dramatic monologues (dialogues or narratives were the poet is absent; debated as to whether this is a form of lyric poem). - Narrative poetry: anything that does not contain thoughts or feelings... anything that is plot-driven and flat is not lyric. - Dramatic monologue can then be considered lyric because there's a psychological exploration. - Usually, it's narrative, dramatic or lyric. - There are many that we've already covered in class: The Passionate Shepherd to his Love - The shepherd is promising things which cannot be achieved in real life to his loved one. - This is more a confession of thoughts/desires. Nightingale - I-you: sometimes you will find the I inside, but sometimes it is just implied Paradise Lost - As a whole, it is not a lyric poem, however the beginning bit is. - Lyric poetry can be found interlaced in other forms of poetry. My Last Duchess - Dramatic Monologue as Lyric. - The fact that you're using a character to portray these different feelings makes them different. Bonny Barbara Allen: this is not lyric, because there's no feelings. Sir Patrick Spens: this is a narrative. Activity: Identify if a poem is lyric or not, and justify your choice. - Lyric is an adjective which means melodious (you won't find an entry on lyric poem in the dictionary). - Distrinct from narrative/ strictly dramatic, as it focuses on the human condition, the relationship of a person to the environment or people around him. - Lyric poem is at the heart of humanity and the study of individual. - Uses first person singular: implied or explicit quite commonly. - There are moments that become more meditative. Class activity: - We were assigned a poem and instructed to figure out if it was lyric or narrative. Our poem can be found here: The Golden Vanity - Sir Walter Rawleigh has built a ship. - This is a narrative. - Even though he demands the daughter's hand in marriage, there's no feeling to go with it. - Movement called anti-lyric: feminist rewriting of lyric poetry? - Shall I compare thee to a summer's day = lyric - Lover and his laugh = silly and lyric General - Poetic form vs word games: is a word game really a poetic form? - Poetry has line breaks, addresses a topic/theme. - If you have a word game that expresses something emotional. - What is it's a narrative word game. - Words under pressure: creates meaning at the level of the word or uses sound to create meaning. - Poetic devices are devices that enable that pressure. - Refrain, repetition, assonance and other literary techniques put additional pressure on the existing words. - One of these examples is found poetry: the poet doesn't create the poetry, but puts it under additional pressure. Palindrome Definition: “A palindrome is commonly thought of as a word (e.g., “deified”), phrase or sentence (e.g., “Able was I ere I saw Elba”) that reads alike both backward and forward. The word, derived from the Greek palindromia, literally means a running back again.” The ordering of the lines in the first half of the poem is reversed in the second half (and/or the ordering of words and even letters may be reversed in the two halves of the poem). (Braid and Shreve 130) - Any number of stanzas of any length - No set metre or syllable count required - No Rhyme scheme required - Repetition is the key - Palindromes are flexible: you can alter the punctuation - Unfortunately, they are limited in scope because you cannot really make them lyrical and you have to focus on the repetition - There are themes of tension, balance, resolution and juxtaposition. They are usually some kind of narrative. SATOR square Examples in the textbook: “Loop” by Fiona Tinwei Lam “Mobius Strip” by Anne Simpson “ATM” by Elizabeth Bachinsky “if you can't eat you got to...” by e.e. cummings - This example is palindromic in many ways (phrases, syllables, lines per stanza etc). Class Activity: I managed to solve all but one, as I could not remember Fiona Lam’s middle name. Reflection: Daniel gave us this link to look at: . I feel that because of the popularity of sentences like these, people have a difficult time taking this poetic form seriously. The fact that it’s nearly impossible to be clever, eloquent or significantly lyrical when using a letter palindrome. The lesser-known variations with words and sentences can, in fact, have more flow and I think if they were a bit more popular, the form would be thought of more as poetry. An interesting alternate activity would have been to change a poem of a different form into a palindrome, though I suspect that this would have taken far too long for it to be viable within the time constraints. It would have been a very valuable insight into the constraints of the form. Ode Definition: The Ode is a poem of praise. - Long lyric poem - Serious in subject and treatment - Elevated in style - Elaborate in its stanzaic structure - Poem of celebration - Pindaric Ode: a close imitation of the classic ode consisting of a strophe (two or more lines repeated as a unit) followed by a metrically harmonious antistrophe, concluding with a summary line (called an epode) in a different metre. These three parts corresponded to the movement of the chorus to one side of the stage, then to the other, and their pause midstage to deliver the epode (Brittanica, 2011). - Horatian Ode: In contrast to the passion, visionary boldness, and formal language of typical odes, they are calm, meditative, and colloquial as well as shorter. They are also usually homostrophic (Abrams & Harpham, 2009). They are typically short lyric poems written in stanzas of two or four lines. In contrast to Pindaric Odes, they are intimate and reflective; they are often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love, and the practice of poetry (Brittanica, 2011). - Irregular Ode: Imitates the classic ode and matter but disregarded the recurrent stanzaic pattern and instead allows each stanza to establish its own pattern of varying line lengths, number of lines, and rhyme scheme. They are free to alter in accordance with shift and mood. Irregular Odes are the most common style of English Ode (Abrams & Harpham, 2009). Ode to my
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