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ENVR 202
Brian Leung

LECTURE 2 – Patterns of Diversity (Jan 9 , 2013)th  Nature of diversity o Biological – hierarchical organizational structure o Environmental – special and temporal pattern o Scaling – continental/local interactions  Global trends in species diversity – processes that created patterns o Species-area relationship o Latitudinal patterns in diversity  Spatiotemporal interactions in biotic/abiotic diversity  Political ecology of biodiversity Biological Diversity  The variety and variability of life at diff lvls of biological organization  Species Diversity -> variations among individuals w/in a species o Genetic – basis of evolution; origin of species  Communities and Ecosystems -> abiotic (plant-animal) and biotic (predator/prey, disease)  Grouping species in Earth’s diversity (Species diversity) o Know a lot of species and their evolutionary relations o Fossils – past life forms, o DNA sequences – reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of major grps of organisms; evolutionary  Modification through descent: over time new species arise in lineages that share ancestry  Evolutionary trees – delineate from one original ancestor o GROUPS  Bacteria  Archaea  Eukarya o Temporal patterns in animal diversity: evolutionary time scales  General trend of increasing diversity over long time periods but punctuated by occasional mass extinctions that reduce global diversity  Time line on fossil records, dating  Origins = oceans, not as rich of a fossil record  Fossil evidence – juxtapose explanations with patterns based on evidence  Fossil record allows us to build up patterns of grps of organisms  Interaction of animals and their envr – calc avg temp of planet, salinity of oceans mapped w/ rise and fall of species  Records not restricted by time, history written in earth itself -> important line of evidence o Species diversity TODAY  Major part is insects – ecosys services Diversity of Earths Environment  Satellite – massive scale of observation  Classify regions – look at diversity and organize it into patterns to try and understand process  Rich database of grouping of not JUST organisms, but places on earth that are biological entities o Biomes o Climate change/past climates o Eocene – warm period on earth where there were tropical biomes at the poles  With the spread of humans (esp since green rev) there has been an immense impact on the planet – mining def o Study human impact on earth pattern and process (a)biotic o Africa EX: difficult history, colonial/post colonial  Nomadic due to war/famine  Ntl succession and recovery o earth is a patchwork of recovery and degradation Spatial Diversity  Mountain landscapes -> Sharp contrasts in physical habitat over short distances o Elevational gradients in montane terrain o Desert at bottom, spruce forest at top ex: Tuscan, Arizona o Many effects on local envr and influence the organisma that live at diff points on the mountain o Cooling as increased
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