EPSC 180 Lecture Notes - Structure Of The Earth, Oceanic Crust, Continental Crust

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Published on 29 Jan 2013
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1- What is Environmental Geology?
-Environmental Geology looks at the interaction between humans and the geological
environment
-3 Key Factors
A- Geology
B- Environment
C- Human Beins
2-What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
-A hypothesis is an educated guess. If the hypothesis gets accepted through
experimentation it becomes a theory. If it gets rejected a new hypothesis has to be
formed.
3. How would you use the scientific method to solve a geological problem?
1) Question
2) Field/Lab work
3) Refine question
4) Pose answer=hypothesis
5) Test hypothesis
6) Conclusion: yes No: reject hypothesis (new hypothesis)
7) Accept hypothesis- more testing
8) Becomes a Theory
4. Explain the two main hypotheses of the origin of the universe?
a) Primeval atom: the universe was crushed down into a small ball (quarks)
- Explosion of quarks (Big Bang): formation of proton and elevtron
b) Singularity: non-dimensional spot filled with energy; empty space
E=mc2 (energy can be converted to matter, and other way around)
The strongest evidence for the Big Bang hypothesis is the existence of the microwave
background radiation... between the stars..use radiation to detect how long ago.
5. What is nucleosynthesis and what caused it?
-Formation of the stars. It from 1 sec to 5 minutes after the Big Bang
-The immense heat of the explosion caused the fusion of the quarks (fundemental
particles) and formed the protons (1H) and neutrons. The fusion of protons and neurons
formed 2H, 3He, 4He, 7Li
???
6. How did the 92 natural elements from the periodic table come from? Explain
- Big Bang nucleosynthesis- First stars initiated fusion ~1 billion years after the Big Bang
a- Fusion of 2H to 4He
Increased heat allowed for the fusion of helium into carbon -
b) 4He+4He-->8Be+4He-->12 C
-Stellar nucleosynthesis (Supernova explosion)
3-Small amount of 16O is also produced by adding 4He to 12C
-Production of 'even-numbered' elements up to iron (Fe)
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