The universe started off with the Big
Bang Theory. It is perceived as a
singularity. The universe was
inﬁnitely small and hot and evolved
by expanding fairly rapidly. There
was a super hot point. The whole of
the universe was compressed into
this small volume. We evolved
through a period of quick evolution
(the ﬁrst few fractions of a second).
This period of rapid expansion was
less than a second long. Matter
was soon visible (though it was really hot). That matter was really a soup. There was also anti-matter. We
would not be here if matter had no won the battle between matter vs anti-matter.
How do we know the universe is expanding?
Are stars and galaxies are moving away from us during expansion or are they at a steady state position?
As the universe expanded, the particles should be moving further apart.
The Doppler Effect: This question can be addressed by understanding the Doppler effect. The train’s
pitch increases as it moves toward you and decreases as it moves away.
The distribution of pattern of sound shows that the sound waves are further apart away from the sound
source and the sound waves are closer together next to the sound source. The distance between the
waves also demonstrates the amplitude is greater closest to the sound source.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, only waves of a particular length are visible to the naked eye. Red
waves are longest (lower frequency) and blue waves are shortest (higher frequency – more waves per a
Stars appear to us as white however some stars are blue in color, others are red. Aria has a visible red
star as well as a nebula (a cloud of gas in which stars are born). There is a tendency of light to move
towards the blue end of the spectrum. If the celestial object is moving towards you it will tend to move towards to the blue end (we call this being blue shifted). If the object is moving away from you, it
becomes red shifted. The color is relative to where you are.
The pattern of black lines has the same distribution on each
color spectrum. Matter will absorb energy. In this case,
hydrogen is taking out energy from the electromagnetic
spectrum at particular wavelengths. This effectively is the
spectrum of hydrogen. The black lines demonstrate the
wavelengths at which hydrogen absorbs energy in the color
spectrum. The second spectrum shows blue shifted and the
last spectrum shows red shifted. To the right is the
ﬁngerprint of hydrogen.
In a lab, you examine the pattern of lines and how the distribution differs. If you perform an experiment on
a known sample and the results come back as such:
Blue shifted: galaxy is moving towards you
Red shifted: galaxy is moving away from you
The patterns of lines would change depending on the sample (due to the unique structures of the
chemical compounds). Different types of matter will have different types of ﬁngerprints.
A Belgian priest was the ﬁrst person to come up with th