EPSC 201 Wednesday September 11, 2013.docx

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Earth & Planetary Sciences
EPSC 201
Anthony Williams- Jones

Wednesday, September 11, 2013 Understanding Planet Earth EPSC 201 The Big Bang • The universe started off with a bang- from big bang theory everything is supposed to unfold- eventually get to galaxies and stars • Big bang is perceived as a singularity • Universe was infitiely small and hot- it evolved there after by expanding fairly rapidly • Whole of the universe was compressed into a small volume- started to evolve and things expanded extremely rapidly, the first few fractions of a second, it was supposed to be over very quickly • Matter was started to be seen- matter is extremely hot • Anti- matter were destroying themselves- we wouldn’t have been here if matter hadn’t won • Slow to large expansion • Electron- negatively charged particle- very small • Positron- positively charged- if they interact matter will be annihilated • Doppler Effect- change of frequency of a wave • Electromagnetic spectrum- long wave length to short wave length • Light moves in wa • Larger particles begin to form once the universe starts cooling- 3 minutes • Hydrogen has 1 proton and when becomes an atom will have one electron • Deuterium Part of the hydrogen family because it has a proton and neutron- has double the mass • Building larger nuclei • Build them by nucleosynthesis • Nuclear reaction has occurred. 2 protons hit and form 1 proton and 1 neutron through nuclear fusion creating particles with a huger mass • Equal number of protons and neutrons- helium • Colliding subatomic particles, to form progressively larger nuclei • Forming nuclei of atoms / relatively light atoms • 300 thousand years- 6000 degrees • The rate at which the universe is cooling is slowly down immensely • Particles are slowing down and expanding • Electrons now start to get captured by nuclei • First atoms begin to form • Decoupling from energy to matter – 300 thousand to 380 thousand • Light energy from the mass • Light energy is bouncing off protons, electrons, becoming scattered • Scattering stops because of atoms have been created and atoms are not scattering the light • 380,000- last scattering occurs • Atoms are not absorbing the thermal radiation, therefore we can detect the radiation • Cosmic Microwave Background Information • When light hits water molecules the light gets scattered so the object the light is trying to display becomes destroyed • Black lines represent the continuous absorbing of hydrogen • Parts of the universe that are dense will become more dense and vice versa • At some point it will become dense enough that stars will be able to form • Denser parts will be hotter in the nebula. You keep on sucking in matter and the parts become much more dense. • Universe is dominantly hydrogen and a little bit helium • Heating up as they become denser and then nuclear fusion can occur when it gets hot enough. Pulling a cloud in- temperatures increasing
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