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January 16th

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GEOG 205
Gail Chmura

January 16 , 2013: What are the Major Global Challenges?  Thomas Maltus (February 13 1776 – December 23 1834)  populations grow exponentially but power to support them doesn’t o positive checks: things that increase mortality rates  hunger, disease, war o preventative checks: things that decrease fertility rates  abortion, birth control, postponement of marriage, celibacy o fertility rates: the average number of children a woman is expected to have based on where they are in the world o getting to the next billion in population very fast  took 123 years to get from 1 to 2 billion; took 13 years to get from 6 billion to 7 billion o Canada, US & China have low fertility rates  NA has low rates due to immigration  China has low rates due to the one child rule o factors influencing population growth  stage 1  non-industrial country where birth & death rates high; with industrialization, birth rates high & death rates drop  stage 2  high population growth; standard of living increases, more education & more family planning  stage 3  birth rates drop toward death rates; zero or negative growth becomes normal; few children in families with resources devoted to care o population rates are increasing in third world countries o 80% of humanity lives on 10$/day o sustainability: development which meets needs of current generations without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs  critique: Robert M. Solow argues it isn’t a specific obligation, it is a general one  we have an intergenerational vs. intragenerational choice o major environmental challenges  biodiversity  birds declined 71% between 1980 & 2002  deforestation  80% of original forest has been cleared/damaged/fragmented  water  70% industrial wastes dumped untreated into waters in developing countries  air pollution  2.4 million people die/year from direct causes of air pollution o year of the city = 2008  50% of people living in urban areas o projected that most cities with 10 million people in 2025 will be in Asia/Rome & 70% of world population living in urban centres  William Cronon  divide between urban dwellers
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