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January 23rd

3 Pages

Course Code
GEOG 205
Gail Chmura

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rd January 23 , 2013: The Earth System and Energy Transfer  records of temperature go back to mid-18 century in Europe (mid-19 century elsewhere)  precipitation records less reliable  difficult to measure accurately & greater variability  weak records for humidity, cloud cover, radiation & extreme events  bias towards Northern hemisphere for climate records  instrumental climate record has changed o changes in measurement methods & reporting of results o changes in location of met. stations o sparse distribution of met. stations: results in reliance on few & possible unreliable stations o changes in land use surrounding met. stations  temperature anomaly: departure from a reference value or long term average o useful for deriving average surface temperatures since tend to be highly correlated over large distances o positive anomaly: observed temperature was warmer than reference value o negative anomaly: observed temperature was colder than reference value  urban heat isle effect: metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas o buildings block surface heat from radiating into relatively cold night sky o thermal properties of materials absorb more o lack of evapotranspiration (through lack of vegetation)  effect of urbanization on climate o temperature  increases o precipitation  increases o radiation  decreases o cloudiness  increases o humidity  decreases o wind speed  decreases  global warming trend very unlikely to be influenced significantly by increasing urbanization  atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased based on measurements taken from Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958 shown on a graph as the Keeling curve  character of deposition (rate of growth) of proxie materials (ice cores, tree rings, sub-fossil pollen, boreholes, corals, lake/ocean sediments) influenced by climatic conditions  future precipitation & storm changes will vary by season & region o amount of rain in heavy precipitation events likely to increase in most regions o storm tracks projected to shift poleward o since hurricanes & typhoons depend on warm water, warmer sea temperatures likely lead to longer storm seasons & more frequency strong storms  catastrophic weather events lead to economic & insurance changes since must cover damages  changes in plate tectonics, earth’s orbit & sun’s strength  changes in atmosphere, ice, vegetation, ocean & land surface  aphelion: when the earth is farthest from the sun (July 4 )  perihelion: when the earth is closest to the sun (January 4 )  eccentricity: elliptical orbit  100 000 year cycle  precession: wobble of spin; change in orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body  19 000 – 26 000 year cycle  obliquity: tilt of axis  41 000 year cycle o low axial tilt = small seasonal variation in solar insolation o high axial tilt = large seasonal variation in solar insolation o causes the season since changes the amount of sunlight each hemisphere gets  there is an equatorial surplus of energy so it is transferred
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