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GEOG 205 (26)

February 11th

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McGill University
GEOG 205
Gail Chmura

th February 11 , 2013: Changes in the Level of Land and Sea  last glacial maximum 26 000 - 20 000 years ago  as thick as 4 km  Laurentide Ice Sheet covered Canada & went south into states  ice sheets covered Scandinavia & Europe & East Asia (greater aridity over N Asia caused temperatures to not be ideal to create ice sheets)  moisture came from oceans (evaporation & precipitation)  sea levels decreased 80-120 m exposing more land mass including land bridges  eustatic change: change in volume of earth’s oceans due to meltwater & thermal expansion  isostatic change: shifts in land surfaces  forebulge: earth surface bulges up due to weight of ice retreating  weight of ocean water has effect on earth’s crust under the ocean  when sea levels dropped, the continental shelf uplifted  this contributed to the decrease in relative sea level  use C-dating and species who lived at specific sea levels to track changes in sea levels  rise in eustatic sea level caused submergence of today’s coastlines & created inland seas o Montreal used to be submerged under the Champlain sea  transgression: increase in relative sea level  regression: decrease in relative sea level  occurred as ice sheets grew  rate of isostatic changes is greater than the rate of isostatic changes, so eustatic changes are greater than isostatic changes  the Dutch Problem o before 12 century, Dutch tidal sea (Waadden sea) = freshwater sea, nearly untouched by the oceans o expansion of agriculture & draining of wetlands = peats decomposed &
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