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GEOG 205 (26)

March 20th

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McGill University
GEOG 205
Gail Chmura

March 20 , 2013  question about thermohaline circulation will be on the final!  final will be cumulative  climate is average conditions & the variability of extremes  comparison of world climates rely mostly on precipitate and temperature  global climate system components  atmosphere (temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, aerosol distribution), oceans, land, cryosphere (snow & ice cover), volcanoes, sun  thinking about shifts in global climate o what is a mean?  the average o what is a variance?  measure of the spread from the mean, how far spread apart numbers are from the mean o mean shifts toward warmer climates  change how likely an event is to happen o change in variability (variance) o major changes for warm weather with shift in both mean & variance  less change for cold weather  how do we know the earth’s temperature is increasing? o surface thermometer record  instrumental land temperature record  2000-2009 warmest decade on record  12 of last 13 years (1995-2006) rank among warmest  average surface temperature rose by 0.74C from 1906 to 2004  where the measurements were taken affects the data  rural areas can now be urban o ocean temperatures  water doesn’t heat or cool down as fast as land  when there are increases in temperature, the ocean will not feel the same effect right away  differences in ocean depths  first 100 m – euphotic zone often referred to as “mixed” or “surface” layer  100 m – 300 (to 500 m) – thermocline, subject to fluctuations from tides, waves & winds  beyond 500 m – depths of the oceans, not influenced by surface phenomena o ocean conveyor belt waters in circulation at bottom for thousands of years  what temperatures are we actually measuring for ocean? surface temperatures, deeper depths?  the ocean is 71% of the earth’s surface, 4.3 km depth (avg.)l 97% of planetary water is in the ocean; top 10 m holds as much heat as the entire atmosphere  need to take into consideration to size of the oceans, and the circumpolar current (only current in the world that touches all of the ocean basins; since no land mass connecting to Antarctica, it keeps warm waters away from this continent)  instrumental record: the bucket effect  heaving bucket into water, using thermometer on deck  evaporation cooled the buckets & water  some were wood, others canvas (canvas cooled water quicker)  1942 taken in engine room  change in coastal current strength  studies show increase in coastal winds 1946-1989  caused by greater difference between low pressure, warm air over land vs. high pressure, cool ocean  as temperature increases the
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