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25 Mar 2013
Department
Course
Professor
March 25th, 2013
we will be finishing the lecture from last time lecture slides still under March 20th
review:
o change in coastal wind strength studies have shown increase in coastal
winds (1946-1989)
o Ekman transport there is a combination of wind and the Coriolis effect
that transports water
o satellite measurements measure bottom 8 km (source of error); orbital
drift; calibrating these instruments; satellite record shorter than written
record so uncertainty principle
o confirming warming temperatures should since evidence in glaciers, sea
ice & ice sheets as they melt due to warming temperatures
o Martin Grosjean “the current meltdown is simply not normal
o glacier retreat can’t conclusively be tied to higher temperatures as it’s
impacted by precipitation changes
o global evidence indicates that the majority of glaciers around the world are
in retreat, which fits with warming world
changes in ice/snow cover
o sea ice
there are differences between the Arctic & Antarctica
Antarctica is a continent, but the Arctic is in the north pole
region that includes many islands & borders a number of
countries like Canada, Russia & Greenland
sea ice in Arctic much less mobile due to the countries
surrounding it
floes (broken off pieces of glacier) more prone to converge or
bump into each other & pile up into thick ridges
presence of ridge ice & its longer life cycle leads to ice that
stays frozen longer during the summer melt
some Arctic sea ice remains through summer 7 continues to
grow through autumn
almost all sea ice that forms during Antarctic winter melts
during summer
there has been a dramatic decrease in he amount of Arctic sea ice
sea ice found in polar regions where surface ocean layer
freezes
max. in late winter & min in late summer
don’t see reductions in winter since few degrees change
doesn’t have much effect
in 1970s it averaged ~ 8 million km2 a year less than 3.5
million in 2012
could be ice-free in summer months within 20 years
artic amplification
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Document Summary

Presence of ridge ice & its longer life cycle leads to ice that stays frozen longer during the summer melt some arctic sea ice remains through summer 7 continues to grow through autumn. Almost all sea ice that forms during antarctic winter melts during summer there has been a dramatic decrease in he amount of arctic sea ice sea ice found in polar regions where surface ocean layer freezes. Max. in late winter & min in late summer. Observation shows arctic is warming faster than forecasted. Potential causes: changes in cloud cover, water vapour less sea ice means surface of ocean is able to evaporate more, changes to oceanic/atmospheric circulation ocean currents might bring more warmer waters into the. Arctic preventing the formation of sea ice: decrease in sea ice/snow cover decreases the amount of albedo & therefore increases temperatures (since radiation lost to reflection is now absorbed) Dramatic decreases in arctic but surprising increases in.

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