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GEOG 205 (47)
Lecture

April 10th

by OneClass34312 , Winter 2013
4 Pages
95 Views
Winter 2013

Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 205
Professor
Gail Chmura

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April 10th, 2013
you can make your midterm mark worth 10% and the final worth 45%... but you
have to email Drew on the 22nd… (April 22nd @ 10 am)
BUT the final is hard (and cumulative) … similar to the midterm
final consists of: 4 essay questions (40 points); 10 short answer (20 points); 40
multiple choice/true false questions (each other 1 point, 40 points total)
impacts on agriculture (food, fibre, forests around world affects growth)
o elevated CO2
o higher temperatures
o altered precipitation & transpiration regimes
o increased frequency of extreme events
o modified weed, pest & pathogen pressure
what we will talk about:
o increasing levels of carbon dioxide
o availability of water
o changes in temperature
o possible increases in pests
CO2 increases in plants
o referred to as CO2 fertilization effect there is more carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere so plants uptake it easier and therefore grow faster
o it is plant food
o the actual effects are an area of intense complexity, study & uncertainty
o C3 plants: wheat, rice and soya bean show the largest increase
o maize, sorghum, sugar cane, millet & many pasture/forage grasses show
lesser increase
o the difference between these plants are the photosynthesis reactions that
take place, they are slightly different, specifically in terms of enzymes
o including idea of water & nutrient availability, experiments show increases
under unstressed conditions in range of 10-25% for C3
o this doesn’t mitigate climate change because eventually the plants became
saturated in carbon dioxide, so they cannot uptake anymore this is
because there aren’t enough nutrients in the soil such as nitrogen
o impacts are unequal
o there aren’t dramatic decreases regionally in bread baskets, but do see
regional variations with local winners & losers
o see further stress put on areas that already struggle with being self-
sustaining with regard to agricultural yield
o places may experience more extremes
o regions in Southeast Asia which rely on unregulated rivers might be more
susceptible to change
o temperature is the deciding factor here
for cereal crops, potential yields projected to increase for small
increases in temperature but decrease for larger temperature rises

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Description
th April 10 , 2013  you can make your midterm mark worth 10% and the final worth 45%... but you nd nd have to email Drew on the 22 … (April 22 @ 10 am)  BUT the final is hard (and cumulative) … similar to the midterm  final consists of: 4 essay questions (40 points); 10 short answer (20 points); 40 multiple choice/true false questions (each other 1 point, 40 points total)  impacts on agriculture (food, fibre, forests around world affects growth) o elevated CO2 o higher temperatures o altered precipitation & transpiration regimes o increased frequency of extreme events o modified weed, pest & pathogen pressure  what we will talk about: o increasing levels of carbon dioxide o availability of water o changes in temperature o possible increases in pests  CO 2ncreases in plants o referred to as C2 fertilization effect  there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere so plants uptake it easier and therefore grow faster o it is plant food o the actual effects are an area of intense complexity, study & uncertainty o C3 plants: wheat, rice and soya bean show the largest increase o maize, sorghum, sugar cane, millet & many pasture/forage grasses show lesser increase o the difference between these plants are the photosynthesis reactions that take place, they are slightly different, specifically in terms of enzymes o including idea of water & nutrient availability, experiments show increases under unstressed conditions in range of 10-25% for C3 o this doesn’t mitigate climate change because eventually the plants became saturated in carbon dioxide, so they cannot uptake anymore  this is because there aren’t enough nutrients in the soil such as nitrogen o impacts are unequal o there aren’t dramatic decreases regionally in bread baskets, but do see regional variations with local winners & losers o see further stress put on areas that already struggle with being self- sustaining with regard to agricultural yield o places may experience more extremes o regions in Southeast Asia which rely on unregulated rivers might be more susceptible to change o temperature is the deciding factor here  for cereal crops, potential yields projected to increase for small increases in temperature but decrease for larger temperature rises  in most tropical & subtropical regions, potential yields are projected to decrease for most increases in temperature  due to crops being near maximum temperature tolerance (worse with decreased precipitation)  BUT globally greater than 3C increase could mean decline in both places  relationship to pests o weeds, pests & fungi thrive under warmer temperature, wetter climates & increased CO2 o warm weather pests can star breeding sooner & have more hatches; expand their ranges o there is a disruption of synchrony between pests & predators due to this o increased frequency of pest outbreaks & upheavals which are previously at equilibrium  USA sugar maple o 70% of tree species showing tree range migration in USA o maple trees that produce maple sugar will be moving southward  great Spanish olive migration o Spain produces 46% of world’s olive oil, increased from 28% in 2002 o gain came at expense of Greece & Italy where olives died due to high temperatures and lack of water  baseline for agriculture o effects on agriculture can depend greatly on a
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