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Lecture

Lecture 5: Living in the Environment: Perception & Behaviour

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 210
Professor
Jon Unruh
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 5: Living in the Environment: Perception & Behaviour Theme 2: Identity and Landscape Reading: Know et al, Chapter 5, entire chapter East African Livelihoods Clash over perceptions on a landscape à the Horn of Africa Focus on Somalia Nomadic Pastoralism: Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan Cyclic behaviour of precipitation 34 ethnic groups within the horn of Africa Diversity in perception, ethnic groups, land use etc… make the environment different. Seasonal Migration of Nomadic Herds • Move away from rivers and wells and then back to rivers and wells • Importance of dry season access to river • 2 important rivers in Somalia • During the dry season, nomads go to the river • Drought Year Nomadic Migrations o Changes the migrations pattern o Must move far distances o Begin crossing international boundaries o Drought resistance o Drawing boundaries on a map can interfere with a livelihood Social Order • Need to make alliances with who is on the land that you want to graze • This social order acts to allow long-term sustainable use of grazing resources • Helps make nomadism work • Sustainability and conservation can sometimes involve conflict • Conservation sometimes needs confrontation • How does this social order contribute (or not) to governance? Clan Alliance • When the rain fall is normal o Have certain set alliances that are used continuously • Drought Year o A lot of alliance making and breaking o A lot of conflict Southern Somalia and Development • Development in Somalia in the 70s and 80s focused on the two perennial rivers in the country o Jubba River o Shabelle River • Perception is key à Development perspective • Irrigation Project on the Shabelle River o Perception of the way to use the environment o Many irrigation canals o Difficult to get right o Very expensive o Had to clear grass near the river to make this o Production of Place o Creates a domino effect in land degradation o Clash of perceptions as to what this landscape is to be used for o Nomads must then go elsewhere to locate water and grazing The nomads livelihoods all depends on their access to rivers during the dry period. • Uses huge areas of land • If access to t
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