Lecture 10: Midterm 1 Review 2/7/13 3:25 PM
Midterm is Thursday, February 14 th
• A-M: Usual Room
• N-Z: SADB M-1 (Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building)
What type of questions are on the exam?
5 short answer questions:
• A paragraph or two should be all that is needed
• You may write in bullet points
• Read them carefully and provide the right number of examples
5 definition questions
• A couple of sentences or one paragraph is all that is needed
• Read carefully and provide what is requested: example, problem,
how it works…etc…
8 matching questions: a concept or a term is matched with its counterpart
• There may be more than one correct answer for each question
19 multiple choice questions
• This is only one best answer!!!
Direction of Landscape Change
We can’t always assume direction of landscape change!
• Desert to agriculture or agriculture onto desert
• West Africa: trees and grass à stop deforestation or beginning of a
• Arizona, USA: mesquite and cattle ranching (know this!)
o Mesquite tree originally occupying the lowlands, the cows
degraded the land and the mesquite trees moved onto their
land à expansion of trees
o Is this degradation? Is conservation burning the trees?
• Peru: fruit trees, Swidden fallow agriculture, bat and bird seed
o Fruit tree clusters
o People gather the fruits à eat the fruit, throw the rest on the
ground, bats and birds use these trails and drop the seeds
o Suddle and nuiance ways that landscapes can be changes Cognitive Images: What are they? How are the derived? Role of
Culture? Experience? Meaning?
Know this definition
Give a child a crayon
Making of Cultural Landscapes: Progression of Views of Nature over
Example of the Western European view of nature and how this has changed
• The Early View: wilderness embodies danger, beyond control, fear,
• The Now View: preserve it, conserve it, science can study this
(review this lecture)
Think of the big markers of this trajectory. This is just one trajectory and
there are many in the world.
Landscape in Geography can have Various Meanings
Landscapes are produced of:
• Air Pollution
• Internet Use
• Any form of spatial data
If it can be spread over space, it can be mapped. You can use spatial data
for a lot of things.
MC: Which of the following is not something you can produce a map of…
• None of the Above
1. Landscape as contested terrain
• Think about: ‘perceptions of the environment – East Africa –
nomads and farmers.’
• Israel/Palestine examples
2. Landscape as learning.
• Think About: learning about religious sites and why they are there,
as well as: homelands, famous battlefields, “this is where that
• History in elementary
3. Landscape as language. • Think about: landscapes as an archive, landscape ‘says something.’
• Message from the landscape
Think of examples for each of these.
Identity: Examining the Difference
In one framework, there are four basic reactions to ‘other’ (outside) cultural
• Imperialist: ‘there is not other, only exotic’
• Trans-cultural: ‘anything goes’
• Defensive: ‘allowed in, but changed’
• Defective: ‘lacking an element, go get it’
Identity is all about recognizing the differences and examining them.
Try and come up with examples for each of these.
Types and Methods of Agricultures