GEOG 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Copra, Megacity

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20 Feb 2013
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 12: Colonialism and the Development
Debate
2/20/13 12:58 PM
Reading: Knox et. Al Ch. 10; Also diagram p. 490, Ch. 11
Colonialism through the lens of urbanization – what occurred, why and to
whom?
Urbanization
“People becoming grouped in increasingly large settlements, allowing a
division of labour and increasing specialization in producing goods and
services.” (O’Connor, 1983: 12)
division of labour
larger and larger settlements
UN Dept. Economic and Social Affairs
Fewer than 500,000
500,000 - 1 million
1 million 5 million
5 million 10 million
10 million +
but these are super arbitrary
Little homogeneity in historical processes
Cultural Differences in interpretations
Urban Millennium
Tipping point
When the entire world went from overwhelmingly rural to
overwhelmingly urban
2008 in the book, 2007 in the UN
the world is more than 50% urban
The most urbanized continent in the world is North America
o 82% US
o 80% Canada
Mega-cities
Indigenous Urbanization
Indigenous Urban Settlements developed without outside colonial influences.
Organic
From the people themselves
Not people coming in from the outside
(p. 440 in reading)
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Latin America: Maya urban areas
Tikal in Guatemala
Mexico City, Tenochtitlan – 1325
Africa
Yoruba civilization, 1100 AD – Nigeria
Nile Valley
Asia: largest number of pre-colonial indigenous urban settlements
Middle East
Pakistan
India
China
Japan
2 Basic Elements of Urbanized Society Existed before External Contact
1. Surplus created from agriculture to feed non-rural, non-
agricultural population
2. Emergence of an hierarchical society:
o aristocracy ! military masses ! artisans ! peasants
o ex. Egypt
Also Common Though
o Sophisticated agricultural systems, esp. for rice cultivation
" Terracing
o Animal husbandry (farming, livestock)
" To create surplus
" Protein
o Towns and settlements fairly small
" There was still enough land
" Not large “mega-cities”
Urban areas were being developed for different reasons.
1. Trade
o Bombay, Indian City (now Mumbai)
o Calcutta
2. Administration
o Angkor
3. Religion
o Mecca
Islam brought a distinct landscape (know for exam)
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