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Lecture 12

Lecture 12

7 Pages

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GEOG 210
Jon Unruh

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Lecture 12: Colonialism and the Development Debate 2/20/13 12:58 PM Reading: Knox et. Al Ch. 10; Also diagram p. 490, Ch. 11 Colonialism through the lens of urbanization – what occurred, why and to whom? Urbanization “People becoming grouped in increasingly large settlements, allowing a division of labour and increasing specialization in producing goods and services.” (O’Connor, 1983: 12) • division of labour • larger and larger settlements UN Dept. Economic and Social Affairs • Fewer than 500,000 • 500,000 - 1 million • 1 million – 5 million • 5 million – 10 million • 10 million + • but these are super arbitrary Little homogeneity in historical processes Cultural Differences in interpretations Urban Millennium • Tipping point • When the entire world went from overwhelmingly rural to overwhelmingly urban • 2008 in the book, 2007 in the UN • the world is more than 50% urban • The most urbanized continent in the world is North America o 82% US o 80% Canada • Mega-cities Indigenous Urbanization Indigenous Urban Settlements developed without outside colonial influences. • Organic • From the people themselves • Not people coming in from the outside (p. 440 in reading) Latin America: Maya urban areas • Tikal in Guatemala • Mexico City, Tenochtitlan – 1325 Africa • Yoruba civilization, 1100 AD – Nigeria • Nile Valley Asia: largest number of pre-colonial indigenous urban settlements • Middle East • Pakistan • India • China • Japan 2 Basic Elements of Urbanized Society Existed before External Contact • 1. Surplus created from agriculture to feed non-rural, non- agricultural population • 2. Emergence of an hierarchical society: o aristocracy à military masses à artisans à peasants o ex. Egypt • Also Common Though o Sophisticated agricultural systems, esp. for rice cultivation § Terracing o Animal husbandry (farming, livestock) § To create surplus § Protein o Towns and settlements fairly small § There was still enough land § Not large “mega-cities” Urban areas were being developed for different reasons. • 1. Trade o Bombay, Indian City (now Mumbai) o Calcutta • 2. Administration o Angkor • 3. Religion o Mecca Islam brought a distinct landscape (know for exam) • Middle: Mosque • Close to that middle (red part): Market commercial area • Around the Mosque (teal part): Elite homes • On the Outside: Occupational District o Hierarchical based on what is being made Colonialism Formal establishment and maintenance of political and leg
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