Class Notes (807,328)
Canada (492,697)
Geography (749)
GEOG 210 (105)
Jon Unruh (101)
Lecture 11

GEOG 210 Lecture 11: GEOG 210 Lecture 11

7 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
GEOG 210
Jon Unruh

What is development? Prof Brian E Robinson [email protected] Situating “development” • Previous lectures – how do landscapes form • An overview of the next few lectures: a. What is development, and how do we think about what this means? • What do we mean by it and how do we measure development? b. How and why have (economic) development trajectories differed? • Over different places at different times • How some regions developed in some ways and other regions didn't develop in other ways c. What is poverty and what are poverty traps? • Micro-scale - people in those places • Distribution of economic activity (winners and losers) d. International aid, and aid effectiveness • Video: globalization of aid • These are the main ideas we’ll consider over the next 2 weeks – development from a human geography perspective Where I’m coming from… (Prof's focus) • Ecosystem services, development, livelihoods o In developing world o Local scale: how people benefit from local resources, and how policies mediate these relationships • Work on levels of: o Landscape and households o Institutions and public goods What ES contribute to livestock? • Communities rely on wild feed and grass o Water and livestock Landscape and Household Level: Forest resources --> how those contribute to people's livelihoods Landscapes (Great Wall, National Forests) affects jobs • Jobs from natural landscape tourism What other ES contribute to rural livelihoods? • Land use and conservation policies • Ex paid to conserve landscapes Graph: The Poor Depend More on Ecosystem Services • Which populations are hurt when populations are destroyed? Photo: Households with migrants depend less on ecosystem services • Urban/rural migration - how does this change the ways we depend on the environment Institutional level: Responses to environmental policy • Assess environmental and livelihoods impacts of policies: o credit access program on rural productivity o changing farming practices for cash o reduce stocking rates in grasslands Land tenure & property rights • Why do some communities self-regulate use of natural resources? • Does a certain type of land tenure best protect forests? • What does the conservation community need to know about land tenure security? Methodology: • Political ecology • Economics Course Content Topics • What is development? • How do we measure it? • Patterns of development • Dependency theory Development: • What is it? o Need to define it objectively, not what we want, but what the subjects of development want • How do we measure it? o How to track progress o e.g., how does the World Bank defined low-, middle- and high- income countries? o Or including education, and not just income --> adds new standards to how we aim to achieve development • Different ways to measure development/quality of life --> depends on how you define development • But there are standardized ways to define development across the world Measuring development: Gross domestic product (GDP) • What is GDP? o Gross value added by all residents of producers in the economy, (plus taxes minus subsidies) that are produced within that country o the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year • Critiques o Doesn't show what is happening inside the country. Lots of stuff is aggregated o Undocumented exchanges (informal economies, which are huge in some places o Only focuses on the economic sphere (manufacturing, companies, firms… excludes wealth accumulated in the household: childcare services, value produced in the home not exchanged in a business transaction) o Doesn't take into account natural country assets • Easy to measure • Politically challenging to decide what to add to GDP to make it better Measuring development: Gross national income • Tracks residents of a country, rather then activities of a country • total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by non-residents • Ex residents of Finland conducting business in other countries - economic activity goes back to Finland • Uses Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) - each dollar here can buy a dollar there, puts everyone on the same page o Same amount of stuff can be bought with each dollar to make it even o a theory which states that exchange rates between currencies are in equilibrium when their purchasing power is the same in each of the two countries. • Little better of a measure than GDP but still relatively simplistic Missing things, but useful • Easy to measure • Long records Measuring development: ...? • What else might we want to include in a measure of development? Measuring development: Human development index • Life expectancy (health) o Of a child born in that year • Education (how well functioning a government system is and direct benefits of education, ie opportunities) o Mean years of schooling (today) and expected years of schooling (for someone today, trend in future) • Income o GNI *Used in decisions on allocating resources Map of HDI: Looks different than GDP and GNI over space Measuring development: Human development index Rank: GNI/cap rank minus HDI rank • Big differences o Australia, moves up 15 places (2 vs 17) o New Zealand, moves up 16 places (6 vs 32) o May not have much cash, but long life expectancies and education • Some go down too o Singapore, moved down 15 o Qatar moved down 35 o High incomes, but lower levels of education/life expectancy But what is still wrong with this? Could we do better? • Extremely high income earners (ex in the US) could still skew distribution average Human development index, Inequality-Adjusted • Adjusts for inequality • Takes GINI coe
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 210

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.