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Lecture 3

GEOG 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Human Geography, Leading Edge, Map Projection


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 210
Professor
Jon Unruh
Lecture
3

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1. Field Study Sustainable Agriculture & Food Security in Mary 3
a. Structure and regulations of agriculture in Cuba
b. Field visits to cover sustainable and organic agriculture
c. Urban agriculture
d. Land use and food security issues
e. AGRI 325
f. Assessment: term paper and take home exam
g. Cost: $2400
h. Julie.major@mcgill.ca
2. Flooding
a. What is the long flood. Interpretation of images reveals the production of
landscape and helps flood preparedness
b. Data heavy
i. Example: extent of the red river flood 1997
3. Geosphere Image
a. Large scale landscapes used to portray global problems such as deforestation
and global warming. Understand how the earth responds to certain system
changes
i. Example: Impact of global warming and Canada
1. Take the next step and figure out what you need to do (good, bad,
adapt)
2. In test terms of global warming: IT CAN BE ALL BAD, WE
CAN ADAPT, OR IT CAN BE GOOD!
a. Know for the test!
4. Land settlement and deforestation in the amazon
a. In brazil, an area of biodiversity as well as the people living there suddenly
involved in a large scale agricultural process
b. In a planned way the truck delivers people to develop the land resulting in putting
people on the land (a land title)
i. Problem: much more deforestation than originally projected, and huge
problem because the people do not believe the system resulting in
problems (and what they do, they clear the land, all of it, and claim it).
ii. TENURE SECURITY: the right to your land being secure and not subject
to outside forces (such as deforestation).
c. Very much a human geography problem – space, landscape, and other elements
such as feeling of security that drives up the rate of deforestation
5. Landforms – Africa (not deforestation but OIL/WATER) Agriculture in the Sahara
a. Landforms in Sahara that might indicate water and oil
i. Nubian Sandstone Aquifer: fossil water (does not get replenished)
ii. Problem of to use it because it will never be replenished, or never use it
because you will never get it again
1. Example picture of 1988/2006 you can totally transform the
landscape (but there is an end date because of fossil water)
a. Irrigation circles
b. Technical Aspects of Africa
i. Striping of Images for Africa
ii. TOAR Polarsynchronous Orbit (or something like that)
iii. The earth moves underneath the satellite, as the satellite moves north to
south
iv. Construct an image (remote sensing)
c. Geosynchronous orbit, for different purposes (parking a satellite)
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i. Geosynchronous orbit: for a fixed location on earth the satellite returns to
exactly the same place in the sky at exactly the same time each day to
follow a location
ii. Satellite politics
d. Horn of Africa
i. Vegetation in Horn of Africa (question what we can do with this?)
ii. Difficulty with famine and food security
iii. We want to PREDICT things, mostly the bad things to prepare. Certain
problems (such as famine) is one of those things that we should be able
to outgrow.
iv. How can we use satellite imagery to help us
1. Ethiopia elevation imagery
a. Difficult to move around the country
b. Use imagery to find water courses to find the water
c. Elevation plus rivers and lakes. Calculation of human
vulnerability to drought and flooding
d. Food security in the Horn of Africa (FEWS: Famine
Emergency Warning System)
e. You can only predict 3 months in advance
6. How we look at pieces of geography
a. Great deal of information, in layers, to produce maps and answers
7. Specific Feature of the Landscape
a. Topographic maps represent earth’s surface in horizontal and vertical dimensions
b. Contours connect locations of similar elevation
i. Close together: getting higher quickly
ii. Farther apart shallow
c. Contours also used for other data (temperature, precipitation, vulnerability)
d. Air pollution contours
i. Isoline maps portray spatial information by connecting points of equal
data value. This map shows air pollution in the eastern United States and
Canada
1. Take into consideration what you are mapping affects how you
interpret the data
2. TRICK QUESTION: WHAT PHENOMENON CAN YOU EASILY
PUT INTO ISOLINE MAPS: HEIGHT/ELEVATION, NOT
POLLUTION!
8. Map projection matters (the problem of correct distance
a. If distance is what we are interested in, you need a specific projection
9. Landscape in Geography can have
10. Countries Shown Proportional to their Populations
a. Cartoonish, almost
b. Cognitive images – very informative as to how people think about the landscape
c. Examples
i. Population versus size
ii. Cost per min of telephone calls made from the US in 1998 (highly
distortional)
iii. Spatial structure of the internet, Mbone, the internet multicast backbone
that is the most popular way of transmission video and audio stream
iv. visualization: data from mobile phone networks can creat maps that show
how people are moving around
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