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Section 5: The World of the City

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McGill University
GEOG 216
Geraldine Akman

The World of the City 12/5/12 1:03 AM Reading 20: Hayter and Patchell Down-side of Trade Agreements Labour Environment Public Health • Don’t have a choice on what we can and can’t import • GMF Culture • Does have some culture side to it • French content in Quebec • Germany: Purity Law à now in the EU this law is unfair Development • Wrong thing for development Democracy • Undermines the government Double Standard: First World Agriculture • Off the table: subsidies of agribusiness • The more powerful countries tend to prevail, weaker countries have a harder time in disputes • Smaller countries usually don’t have the resources to dispute à science, lawyers, money Big Flaw: tends to drive wages down along with prices à people’s incomes are not sufficient to buy things, labour is pushed to subsistence Labour here has to compete with labour in the third world à puts people out of work Better distribution of land à key to development, creates incomes • Development has been based on small farmers • These small farmers gain income which they can put back in the economy Trade agreements tend to favour large agriculture à pushes small farmers out of their jobs WTO Cases GM foods: Soybeans, corn • EU vs. Monsanto EU ban on hormone beef: overruled for lack of scientific proof • The EU lost US endangered species act: no shrimp that endangers sea turtle • Malaysia, Philippians took US to court • The US prevailed NAFTA 1989: Canada-US (CUSFTA) 1994: NAFTA Chapter 11: investor protection • A company can sue a government if they feel that their investments have been hurt • Non-tariff kind of protection • Canada MMT 1998 o Gasoline additive MMT o Possible nerve damage o Ethel Corporation, Virginia o $250 million claim o $13 million settlement à Canada had to pay and allow the gas into Canada • Corn o US corn, $10 billion annual subsidies o 70% of world market o ADM, Cargill o 3 million Mexican corn farmers § big corporations are putting small farmers out of business because they can grow corn at cheaper prices o “What if the world were one gigantic field? When crops grow where they grow best, we improve agriculture efficiently, make food more affordable, and feed a hungry world.” – Archer Daniels Midland § undermines lively hoods and lives à comparative advantage • Metaclad vs. San Luis Potosi, Mexico 2000 o 17 million dollar fine for toxic waste dump Environmental and labour side agreements • Require countries to follow their own environmental and labour laws • Mexico doesn’t do this à unions are tied to government • Isn’t really a way to force countries to do this “Cities are rational landscapes for capital accumulations.” –David Harvey • cities are machines • all of the factors of production that are needed are concentrated in cities • factories, offices, sites of production • all factors of production have to move • Real estate production is holding capital • Circulation of goods à major cities are usually located on a port for the circulation of goods • Cities are generally railroad hubs, highway hubs • Public Transport à worker circulation • Cities are marketplaces, places for buying and s
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