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Rio de Janeiro and the Mega-Event Development Strategy

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GEOG 216
Geraldine Akman

Rio de Janeiro and the Mega-Event Development Strategy Mega-Event Led Development - Public investment, private gain (Maracana = good example) - Gov takes out big loans to do devel, H: private companies end up benefiting - Democracy - Typically mega-event becomes opp to fast-track all sorts of things: ‘shock doctrine’ - Basically saying Olympics coming, have to be ready (planning by state of emergency) - Therefore, going to bypass all sorts of rules + e/thing done in emergency fashion - Ends up being in interests of narrow set of ppl + against interests of maj of pop - Job creation? = 1 of main promises - Boom in jobs (construction) H: events don’t really deliver jobs as promised - Many ppl Rio survive w/jobs in informal sector  Expectations: games going to come, sell many things on street corners  SAfr: Informal vendors have to be far fr/stadiums (b/c licensing agreements) - Tourism revenue tends to go down during Olympics  Build effort build hotels to accommodate tourists  H: ppl decide not put off going to these cities during these events (crowded) - White elephants - Need very specific set of venues  Bicycle facility, fencing, obscure sports not necess practiced in country after event - Cost more to maintain than you earn from using them  Huge costs to public finance to maintain facilities Rio’s Olympic “sportive constellation” - 4 zones of Rio (Deodora, Maracana, Barra, Copacabana) - Barra: gentrification frontier of Rio (fashionable place to live nowadays) - Going to be connected by bus-rapid transit lines - Being metro sys = very expensive + disruptive - Cheaper method, buses act as subways  on surface, use dedicated lanes (use existing roads) - When buses arrive @stations, pay to get into station + take bus (high capacity) - Rio: 4 lines scheduled to connect e/thing to Barra (reorienting devel of city) David Harvey: Accumulation by Dispossession - Accumulation by expanded reproduction (what has already been discussed in class) - Capitalists invest in capital, purchases on market, purchase raw materials for production, production process takes place, commodities produced are sold, surplus value is created, profit is reinvested + through this process capital grows + accumulated - Capitalism has found a way to accumul w/out violence - Before capitalism, most accumul done by raiding, take what others have - Marx: in order have non-violent way of accumul capital, big violence had to take place first - Called primitive accumulation - Ex: Enclosure of the commons = ppl pushed out of agricul violently through mili power of state, allowed them to be the proletariat + work in city  If could still subsist on land, wouldn’t be workers in factories - Initial capital to keep capitalism going was taken by violence  Another place capital came fr/= conquest of colonialism - Harvey  this kind of violence still necessary - Renames accumulation by expanded reproduction  accumulation by dispossession - Capitalism must grow + expand, but there are limits - Solutions: accumul by dispossess (also known as privatization, commodification) - Ex: health care privatized in Canada - Health care = public good, if privatized, all dispossessed of s/thing belongs to us collectively - H: wonderful for capital accumul  Place for floating capital to be invested in where it could get high returns - Only happens through state power - Territorial dimension: capitalism must happen outside - Capitalism externalizes things - Cities = imp for capital accumulation b/c they are space of social reproduction  @s/point externalized, devalued left to be recolonized later
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