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GEOG 216 - Lecture 2.docx

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GEOG 216
Sebastien Breau

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GEOG 216 – Lecture 2: Geographies of the Global Change Overview: - Geographic perspectives - Internationalization vs. Globalization - The debate: competing explanation - Is a global Economy new? - Novel elements - Consequences Introduction: Geography of the World Economy - Explains the why of the where o Uneven development – why are some places right and some poor? What creates third world/first world? o Industrial Location - - Globalization is not a new topic; it is a 200 year old topic that has been brought up in the present. Internationalization vs. Globalization - Internationalization: Extent to which different national economies interact with one another through the exchange of goods and services. o Indicators: Trade data/Production o Focus on the ―extension‖ of economic activities across national boundaries o Quantitative approach to global integration - Globalization: Involves more than simply increased international trade o Set of processes through which economic activities are increasingly interconnected  Functional integration of production activities by multinational corporations (MNCs)  Branch plants: ex. Car is produced in parts in different countries o Emergence of new set of actors on global stage (institutions, agreements)  Agreements: Help set the stage of how the new economy is going to behave - Difference between internationalization and globalization is not just quantitative data, but also the qualitative data that facilitate global intergration The Debate: Competing Explanations 1) Hyperglobalizers o New world economic order; ‗borderless‘ economy o Nation states are not significant actors o Everything is becoming homogenous o Neoliberals: are pro hyperglobalizers – break down the boundaries to even out the prices around the world o Antiglobalization: Must regulate globalization to prevent the countries people going poor 2) Skeptics: o Economic globalization is overblown—a myth or a mislabeling of internationalization 3) Transformationalists o Agree that globalization is happening but it is transformative o New geographies are being created o Economic relationships are being stretched and intensified Is Economic Globalization New? - [pre 1500] China and India traded with South East Asia, Eastern Europe, the Islamic world and the Mediterranean - [1500
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