GEOG 216 – Lecture 2: Geographies of the Global Change
- Geographic perspectives
- Internationalization vs. Globalization
- The debate: competing explanation
- Is a global Economy new?
- Novel elements
Introduction: Geography of the World Economy
- Explains the why of the where
o Uneven development – why are some places right and some poor? What creates third world/first world?
o Industrial Location -
- Globalization is not a new topic; it is a 200 year old topic that has been brought up in the present.
Internationalization vs. Globalization
- Internationalization: Extent to which different national economies interact with one another through the
exchange of goods and services.
o Indicators: Trade data/Production
o Focus on the ―extension‖ of economic activities across national boundaries
o Quantitative approach to global integration
- Globalization: Involves more than simply increased international trade
o Set of processes through which economic activities are increasingly interconnected
Functional integration of production activities by multinational corporations (MNCs)
Branch plants: ex. Car is produced in parts in different countries
o Emergence of new set of actors on global stage (institutions, agreements)
Agreements: Help set the stage of how the new economy is going to behave
- Difference between internationalization and globalization is not just quantitative data, but also the qualitative
data that facilitate global intergration
The Debate: Competing Explanations
o New world economic order; ‗borderless‘ economy
o Nation states are not significant actors
o Everything is becoming homogenous
o Neoliberals: are pro hyperglobalizers – break down the boundaries to even out the prices around the world
o Antiglobalization: Must regulate globalization to prevent the countries people going poor
o Economic globalization is overblown—a myth or a mislabeling of internationalization
o Agree that globalization is happening but it is transformative
o New geographies are being created
o Economic relationships are being stretched and intensified
Is Economic Globalization New?
- [pre 1500] China and India traded with South East Asia, Eastern Europe, the Islamic world and the Mediterranean