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Lecture 5

GEOG 216 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Rust Belt, Sun Belt, Call Centre

Course Code
GEOG 216
Sebastien Breau

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- Industrial location: key factors
Access to inputs (raw materials, energy)
Availability of labour (skills, qualifications) Ex. Moncton, New Brunswick: call centre capital
due to large volume of bilingual workers
Pull of the market (depends on type of product)
Processing costs (land, labour, capital)
Transfer costs of alternative locations
Institutional and cultural factors gov policies, regulations, subsidies, etc.
Behavioural considerations objectives/constraints of decision makers
- Relative importance of factors depends on the type of activity involved
- Industrial structure of economies
1. Primary activities concerned directly with natural resources (mining, oil/gas extraction,
2. Secondary activities processing or transformation of raw materials into manufactured
Light manufacturing activities goods that are produced at the firm level and go directly to
consumers (textiles etc.) consumer oriented products
Heavy manufacturing activities intermediate goods that require further transformation,
3. Tertiary activities sale and exchange of goods and services
4. Quaternary activities handling and processing of information and knowledge
- Growth in information-based sectors as time progresses; decline of tertiary, primary, secondary
- Overall global distribution of industry is uneven, dominated by regions that industrialized early :
1. N. America
American manufacturing belt (continental core region) roots of industrial revolution, grew
at fastest pae, heay ad light aufaturig atiities, o alled rust elt
5 high-teh pokets i “u Belt
Southern Cali specialized in apparel, aircraft and aerospace; development of
electronics and biotech industries
San Francisco Bay Silicon Valley
Seattle-Tacoma aircraft and computers
Technology Triangle software (Raleigh-Durham-Charlotte)
Texas computers, electronics
Frost belt to sun belt shift from rigid mass production to flexible specialization
2. Europe
Rurh-Rhine largest industrial hub of all Europe steel, coal, etc.
Saxony light manufacturing, optical devices
Stuttgart high precision manufacturing (automobiles: Porsche, Audi, etc.)
Ile-de-France heavy manufacturing, pharmaceuticals
Lyon textiles
Nice/Sophia/Antipolis fast growing high-tech hub
Golden Triangle (Italy) 70% of Italy’s aufaturig
Third Italy craft-based manufacturing , precision manufacturing
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