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GEOG 309 (11)
Lecture 3

Geography lecture 3.odt

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GEOG 309
Geraldine Akman

th Canada's Historical Geography (lecture 3) January 18 2012 The first People – (30 000 – 25 000 BP) Sea level down results in a land bridge and the migration of hunting societies from NEAsia (Siberia) toAlaska andYukon – Migration routes into NorthAmerica – The either island hoped in theArchipelago – Or they moved between the Cordillera and the East Coast ice sheet down towards the US – 15 000 BP retreat of Wisconsin Ice sheet – 11 500 BPhuman evidence (Fluted-point stone spearheads of Paleo Indians) – 8 000 BP ice sheet is melting in North East – 5 000 BP Paleo Eskimos developedArctic Sea-based hunting technique (Harpoon ... spread into Arctic Canada) – 1 000 BP several cultures entered (Hunting, Fishing, Gathering) – 1500's (around 1/2 million aboriginals in Canada at the time of contact with Europeans) – 2006 (1, 172, 785 aboriginal peoples in Canada) Aboriginal Peoples – Status Indians and Non Status Indians – Status Indians have to be registered and do not have to pay taxes (around 70% of Natives) – Non-Status Indians (Native women marrying non-native men, they lose their status) – Treaty Indians – Metis – Inuit Aboriginal people are by definition people who now reside in Canada and can trace their family history to before the 15 century (before the arrival of Europeans) Historic Treaties th – Started in the East in the 18 century – Starting in late 19 century, Canada begins to settle the West – 1763 Royal Proclamation recognized certain areas as Indian Lands (Crown Land) – Aboriginal people were granted user rights but “Crown” retained power to sell/lease land without compensation – (1701-1920's) historic treaties – Treaties signed before and after confederation set aside land called a reserve to be held in trust for the benefit (use) of a particular collective (Band) by the Crown (Legal owner) – Treaties generally included presents, annual payments into perpetuity, promise of education, right to hint/fish on crown land (Until required for other purposes) and land reserves – Many Groups did not sign treaties inAtlantic Canada, Quebec, Territorial North and BC. – 1867 BNAAct – Ottawa responsible forAboriginal Peoples Diverse perceptions of Historic Treaties – Crown authorities: Vehicles to extinguish aboriginal rights and titles to land – Aboriginal peoples: agreements between sovereign powers to share land and resources Modern Treaties – 1969 proposed reform of the indianAct and abolition of treaty rights and reserve land system polarized and politicized aboriginal peoples – 1975 JBNQA(First Modern land claim agreement) James Bay Northern QuebecAgreement – Signed to facilitate Hydro-electricity production – Enable groups to concentrate on economic, social, cultural and political change – May hold potential for – Self Government (Nunavut) – Lands rich in Natural resources (Diamonds, Oil) – Capital (Machinery, Planes, Loans, Credit) Comprehensive Land-ClaimAgreements – Occur when a group of aboriginal peoples, who have not signed a treaty (Never ceded land) can demonstrate a claim to land through past occupancy – Extinguish the aboriginal land claim to vast areas in exchange for a relatively small amount of land, capital, organizational and administrative structures Specified land-Claim agreements – attempt to rectify shortcomings in the original treaty agreement with the band or redress failure by federal government to meet the treaty terms Territorial Evolution of Canada – 1600-1690 trading posts and colonies – 1713 Treaty of Utrecht (end of the war between Britain and France, France gives up Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay) – 1763 Treaty of Paris (France gives Eastern NorthAmerica to Britain) – 1763 Royal Proclamation (Indian Lands) – 1775-1783American War of Independence – 45 000 British Loyalists immigrate to BNA(Nova Scotia, Eastern Quebec and Montreal and Southern Ontario) – 35 000 to the Maritimes National Boundaries – Nova Scotia is divided into two additional colonies of New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island – 1783 Treaty of Paris II – USAIndependence – Britain and USAsettle the southern boundary of New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario – 1784-1825 BNAAct international border is extended along 49 parallel from Lake of the Woods to the Rockies – 1824 Britain and Russia agree on theAlaska Boundary – 1825-1866 waves of immigration towards British NorthAmerica – 1841Act of Union creates a single Province of Canada from Upper and Lower Canada (Durham Report) – 1842 boundary settled between Maine and
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