GEOG 309 Lecture Notes - Food Security, Infant Mortality, Dependency Ratio

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5 Apr 2012
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Canada's Human Face
Demography: the statistical study of human populations including, density, growth, migration and
socio-economic characteristics.
Population size (absolute #s)
34.5 million (original size 3.4 million)
natural increase, territorial expansion and immigration
p.130 annual population estimates 2001-2009
population increases at around 300 000 per year
Population density (Total population/land area)
relatively low population density of 3.5/km2
This is because most of Canada lies outside of agricultural territory
Population distribution (within geographic area)
extremely uneven
major concentration along southern border with the USA
Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver
80% of population is urban
from 1901 to 2006, population has increased from 37% to 80% urban
Canada's population zones and highway system
60% of population lives between Windsor and Quebec City
39% of population lives in southern Canadian regions (from coast to coast)
moving northward, you have 1% of the population
followed by less than 1% in the more inhospitable areas
Canada's National core
Quebec city, Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto, Three-Rivers, London, Windsor
Population Change: Births, deaths and migration
Population Increase: natural increase + net migration over a given period
Population growth: increase is expressed as a rate (% change over time)
Rate of Natural Increase: is crude birth rate – crude death rate (CBR-CDR)
Crude Birth Rate: the number of live births per 1,000 people in a given year
Crude Death Rate: the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a given year
Net Migration: in-migration minus out-migration
In-migration for attractive features (Employment opportunities and security)
Out-migration to better job opportunities or a more temperate climate (USA)
Components of population growth (2010/2011)
Births: 386,013
Deaths: 252,561
Immigration: 258,906
Emigration: 52,456
Baby Boom Effect
Great Depression and WWII
because of depression, people were not having kids and immigration was put on hold because
there were no jobs
by the end of WWII, people returned from the war and with a more stable economy people
begin to have children again and in 1946, the birth rate increases. (this would last until 1966)
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