GEOG 309 Lecture Notes - Cultural Pluralism, Social Equality, Chinese Canadians

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5 Apr 2012
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Immigration time line
17th century we get french settlements followed by the British
End of the seven years war, wave of British immigration
Wave of loyalists 1775
1790-1860 most of the immigration is from England, Ireland and Scotland
from 1867 onward, waves from immigration from Ireland and China
1882 railway completed ... head tax placed on Chinese immigrants of 50$, raise to 100$ in 1890's
and 500$ in 1903 “Policy of Oriental Exclusion” (Chinese and Japanese)
1908 Continuous Legislation (prevents East Indian Immigration) Had to come to Canada in one
trip
1901-1911 USA, Central and Eastern Europe (Favoured Immigrants) They showed up to settle the
Prairies
1913 400,870 immigrants arrive but in 1935 (Great Depression) 11,000 arrive
1923 Canadian Chinese Immigration Act (tightened in 1930 to total exclusion of Asians)
1947 Repeal of Chinese Immigration Act (some restrictions remain until 1960's)
1950's Selective immigration still favours certain nationalities (85% European)
1962 Point system introduced (plus certain nationalities still excluded)
Civil rights movement and decolonization forces Canada to reexamine its immigration
policies
1967 Remove preferred nationalities clause from Act to Universal point system
1971 Multiculturalism policy (Trudeau)
1976 Immigration Act now includes a non-discriminatory clause
1982 Replacement of BNA Act with Canadian Constitution (entrenched Charter of Rights and
Freedoms)
1988 Canadian Multiculturalism Act
1990's Immigrants exceed natural increase
2002 immigration and refugee Protection Act
Multiculturalism
Cultural pluralism reflects the demographic reality of liberal immigration policies
Social equality and respect for cultural diversity
Demographic Implication
Maintains population growth
Maintains economic growth (supplements the workforce, brings in investment capital)
Provides shelter for refugees
Maintains multicultural approach and ensures cultural diversity in Canada's Society
Changes demographics of large cities
Replaces emigration south to the USA
Asia has replaced Europe in Canada as the leader in immigrant births
Language
98% of the population speaks one or both official languages
3/50 languages spoken by aboriginal peoples have secure future (cree, Inuktitut and Ojibwa)
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