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Lecture 14

HISP 226 Lecture 14: HISP 226 14. 02.22.2016 Lecture 14 Notes

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Hispanic Studies (Arts)
HISP 226

02.22.2016 Hispanic Civilizations Lecture 14 Composition of the Middle Class Emerging middle class in Latin America, although a history of elites and very poor, lay in the between Quote: Undefined middle class, a subset of individuals yet very important in social stratification an attempt to define the middle class, class flexibility which is non existent in Europe Primarily urban Argentina: Middle Class Enlarging prospects of political power and taking from oligarchy, middle class reform Sarmiento: an example of a strong actor in the pursuit of middle class reform Help given to immigrant families to go to school educationschooling system separate from the church secular, free, for all Made Argentina the most educated country in Latin America at the time Created radical civic union the means of gaining political agency in the middle class, institutionalized the emergence of the middle class Radicalization of the working class through institutions to represent: Regional Federal Institution of Working Class Although a middle class did emerge in this time frame, it was small in comparison to the working class a large way to differentiate between the two, middle class did not have as much political clout as working class Middle class is important to the elite class: forming a larger demographic, elite wanting to connect with middle class enforcing conservatism rather than radicalism, creating an important force in changing the political sphere Urban Middle Classes Circulation and creating of knowledge stemming from middle class Important in the creation of a public opinion: El Dia is an example of a middle class run newspaper created in Uruguay Although most immigrants came as working class, most moved to the middle class: high mobility in places such as Brazil, Argentina, Chile Chile: only 4 percent of population were immigrants, but owned 32 percent Mainly Europeans: racial superiority in gaining positions of power Systems of patronage made it possible for them to gain higher positions Argentina: Middle Class Politics Goals beyond education include: industrialization, etc. Looking for a highly involved government with a nationalistic agenda and a large focus on social structures Supporting a range of political parties Deep interest in success of USA specifically with education and industrialization although disdain for US involvement in the region Focus on education reform and literacy as a means through creating more successful societies
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