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Lecture 2

202 - Week 4 – Lecture 2 - British and French Borderlands.docx

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McGill University
HIST 202
Elsbeth Anne Heaman

Week 4 – Lecture 2 History 202 – Canada to 1867 English and French Borderlands 25/09/2013 Midterm – meet on Friday at Leacock 26 = one or two essay questions  won’t need laptops = bring pens! Studying for mid-term = reading, themes for reading, other themes e.g. what is the contact zone? Why did peoples come to NF? Why isAcadia? What do we learn from it? Less focus on Brett Rushforth and the term papers Gender = Backhouse English and French competition in NorthAmerica has the effect of: Divvying up the territories – French vs. English Newfoundland, Hudson’s Bay vs. St Lawrence Colony Becomes a race to the Pacific also  competition for trade w. Hudson Bay and Montréal Companys Raids, massacres, seizures of trading posts by rival powers or merely privateers… 17thC Canada is one of the more violent places in the world. Acadian with a trading post  multiple charters issued within nations which cause rival networks, claims of church authority, differing councils – 100 associates, seigneurial lines of arguments = differing French interests already competing and then added to this is the competing lines of other interest Privateers/pirates e.g. Elizabeth I  adept at commanding an unofficial navy as privateers whom become part of the navy if war breaks out EXAMPLES: Montréal Planted in 1642 – missionary city – cut off Iroquois raiding parties, protect French-allied traders; attacked from day 1 of building Danger of going outside the walls… Iroquois brags that habitants were ‘unable to go over a door to pisse’ Hard for furs to be transported along the St Lawrence River so Montréal originally had to be built but by day 1 the French were under attack here = perilous place How to feed yourself? – stuck in the barricades… game and greenery growing but really the population is besieged ‘it is almost impossible to make either peace or war with these barbarians… war is their life, their amusement and their source of profit all in one… the beauty of the country is only to be looked at from afar’ Father d’Endemare 1644 Can NF be sustained? Seems unlikely in the early years – esp. because the King has still not sent out any soldiers The Queen Regent subscribes privately to send soldiers Newfoundland English settlers from e17thC = subject to attacks by English rivals by French and basque pirates and French military/navy after Plaisance is founded as French fortress in 1662 1690s – Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville burns St. Johns and doezens of others many die English merchants ask for British state aid  British state send their navy as the British and French states become increasingly involved in imperial games When the French send a d’Iberville, the British learn to reply in kind N.B = fiercest areas of the borderland = where the English and French are closest to each other = wars are definitve of this period Acadia French settlement at Port Royal 1605 – destroyed 1613 by Samuel Argall, English Privateer on instruction from Virginia 1620 – a charter for Virginia grants it all land to 48 Parallel – all the way to newfoundland 1621 – James I grants all land between newfoundland and new England to William alexander, Scot = calls it New Scotland 1627-1632 =Alexanders and Kirkes attack, claim Port Royal 1640s – Acadian civil war. French rivals with English claimants and new England embroilments 1654 – Robert Sedgwick – English privateer with warrant to attack French privateers, captures Port Royal and other forts which France only get back in 1670 = hard to ascertain whom theAcadians are now loyal to 1674 – Dutch privateer Jurriaen Aernoutsz inflicts serious raids, damage, claims Acadia for Dutch West India Company = throughout this,Acadia’s governor has no troops = governed by NF whom have no more resources to send 1690 – King William’s War – England captures Acadia; returns it in 1697 N.B.s = Governor ofAcadia = little benefit = someone to take shots at  not a relationship with the state = irrelevant to the lives of people elsewhere which makes then neither French nor English Lessons? State has minimal presence Competition for fur, land, posts etc = cannot create economic security which is sustainable trade (lots of smuggling) which is an officially monopoly granted one since the state either lets this happen or decides to ramp up it’s appeals Makes for some obscure loyalties esp. inAcadia = neither the English nor French trust the local population as a conseque
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