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Lecture 5

202 - Week 5 – Lecture 1 - State and Society in New France.docx

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HIST 202
Elsbeth Anne Heaman

Week 4 – Lecture 2 History 202 – Canada to 1867 English and French Borderlands 30/09/2013 Midterm – meet on Friday at Leacock 26 = one or two essay questions  won’t need laptops = bring pens! Studying for mid-term = reading, themes for reading, other themes e.g. what is the contact zone? Why did peoples come to NF? Why isAcadia? What do we learn from it? Less focus on Brett Rushforth and the term papers Gender = Backhouse English and French competition in NorthAmerica has the effect of: Divvying up the territories – French vs. English Newfoundland, Hudson’s Bay vs. St Lawrence Colony Becomes a race to the Pacific also  competition for trade w. Hudson Bay and Montréal Companys Raids, massacres, seizures of trading posts by rival powers or merely privateers… 17thC Canada is one of the more violent places in the world. Acadian with a trading post  multiple charters issued within nations which cause rival networks, claims of church authority, differing councils – 100 associates, seigneurial lines of arguments = differing French interests already competing and then added to this is the competing lines of other interest Privateers/pirates e.g. Elizabeth I  adept at commanding an unofficial navy as privateers whom become part of the navy if war breaks out EXAMPLES: Montréal Planted in 1642 – missionary city – cut off Iroquois raiding parties, protect French-allied traders; attacked from day 1 of building Danger of going outside the walls… Iroquois brags that habitants were ‘unable to go over a door to pisse’ Hard for furs to be transported along the St Lawrence River so Montréal originally had to be built but by day 1 the French were under attack here = perilous place How to feed yourself? – stuck in the barricades… game and greenery growing but really the population is besieged ‘it is almost impossible to make either peace or war with these barbarians… war is their life, their amusement and their source of profit all in one… the beauty of the country is only to be looked at from afar’ Father d’Endemare 1644 Can NF be sustained? Seems unlikely in the early years – esp. because the King has still not sent out any soldiers The Queen Regent subscribes privately to send soldiers Newfoundland English settlers from e17thC = subject to attacks by English rivals by French and basque pirates and French military/navy after Plaisance is founded as French fortress in 1662 1690s – Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville burns St. Johns and doezens of others many die English merchants ask for British state aid  British state send their navy as the British and French states become increasingly involved in imperial games When the French send a d’Iberville, the British learn to reply in kind N.B = fiercest areas of the borderland = where the English and French are closest to each other = wars are definitve of this period Acadia French settlement at Port Royal 1605 – destroyed 1613 by Samuel Argall, English Privateer on instruction from Virginia 1620 – a charter for Virginia grants it all land to 48 Parallel – all the way to newfoundland 1621 – James I grants all land between newfoundland and new England to William alexander, Scot = calls it New Scotland 1627-1632 =Alexanders and Kirkes attack, claim Port Royal 1640s – Acadian civil war. French rivals with English claimants and new England embroilments 1654 – Robert Sedgwick – English privateer with warrant to attack French privateers, captures Port Royal and other forts which France only get back in 1670 = hard to ascertain whom theAcadians are now loyal to 1674 – Dutch privateer Jurriaen Aernoutsz inflicts serious raids, damage, claims Acadia for Dutch West India Company = throughout this,Acadia’s governor has no troops = governed by NF whom have no more resources to send 1690 – King William’s War – England captures Acadia; returns it in 1697 N.B.s = Governor ofAcadia = little benefit = someone to take shots at  not a relationship with the state = irrelevant to the lives of people elsewhere which makes then neither French nor English Lessons? State has minimal presence Competition for fur, land, posts etc = cannot create economic security which is sustainable trade (lots of smuggling) which is an officially monopoly granted one since the state either lets this happen or decides to ramp up it’s appeals Makes for some obscure loyalties esp. inAcadia = neither the English nor French trust the local population as a consequence of the transfers No way to figure out what the Natives are thinking and why they are thinking this – hard to know if they are genuinely French or not ALSO – indigenous loyalties further complicate matters Much of the land lived on byAcadians is shared with casual trade with the Mi’kmaq (?! Check spelling!!) Much more complicated relations between the Mi’kmaq and different communities that stretch down the Canadian coast Much more settlement – farming and spreading from the coast unlike theAcadians Leads to warfare What role do the French have in this warfare? French and Mi’kmaq largely congenial relations Wabenaki and New Englanders much more hostile relations, beginning around 1670s and escalating as settlers push westwards During open warfare, New Englanders, French, Mi’kmaq, inflict terrible raids on one another e.g. Deerfield 1704 – 56 dead Conquest ofAcadia New England says enough is enough and can’t bear to have the French Frontier is a place of confused identities and loyalties Is a zone of metissage (mixed Native and French people – formal citizenship status that reflects the mingling of races  mingling and mixing of identities is really creating something distinct) People make their own world, amidst fluid and fluctuating ethnic identities and loyalties Pierre-Esprit Radisson Born in France Adopted by Iroquois Leads French trading expeditions in the PDH Leads English trading expeditions through Hudson’s Bay  the foundation of the organisation Is Radisson a traitor (as he was described by the French)?? Does this word having meaning? ‘betraying’the French prior to going to London but also New identities and new masculinity?? Masculinity forged in the encounters between west and Natives  many Native rituals are designed to show off masculine qualities e.g. making slaves, scalping  did people like Radisson find this more appealing than the French styles French Canadians – can disappear into the backwoods OR stay within society If one doesn’t get on with the ‘boss’or ‘imprisons you for being too entrepreneurial’= goes to another company Radisson – dies in London Better at finding allies in the English court rather than in the French court Reflects a certain cosmopolitan at the courts just as much as at the frontier At a time when people at the court often had a very French education – duelling, arts etc. = would be wrong to say that there is an English England and a French France – It is NOT that simple at all… Unclear what the French state’s relationship is with French Canadians - French officials for example can signa peace treaty with the Wendat in the 1640s or with Iroquois in 1701 = this is ‘France’at work in New France its not clear how French the inhabitants are, what they have common with French at home frontier shapes identities more than cultural baggage? Priests, seigneurs, officials continually complain that French Canadians are different from the people of France, far more independent = perhaps the frontier is more important to constructing their idneties than French traditions and institutions Pehr Kalm – Swedish tourist 1749 – Canadians are ‘creoles of canada’– mixed race? Richard White/Brett Rushforth redux To what extent do the conditions of modernity in NAmerica – mass movements of people around and across frontiers, widespread missionary propagandising, commodification of everyday life – break down older restraints upon individuals and communities… Are ‘culture’and’trade’in serious tension with one another or do they dovetail? English – trade is culture French = less so Hard to understand how they could have a ‘community’(forceful, centralised state) Some of the old bond that held people in their social identities = loosening? Widespread missionary propagandising = new also… Sense that a priest persuades rather than forcing people to feel guilty  outreach by the Church is actually quite new Competition for souls, commodification of everyday life = fur trade is at the vanguard of a modern consumer revolution? NewAtlantic trade – turns Natives into consumers and producers at the same time as Europeans also Did the fur trade destroy old traditional values? = happened to everyone Arguments that the IR caused modern consumption… But more recent historiography turns this around because there was so much demand for new products  industry followed slavery Into 18thC Canada is becoming of increasing strategic importance around the world – need Newfoundland! Fish, navy’s training ground BUT the perplexities of governing these vast, violent, poorly known territories are also intensifying Frontier perplexities = ‘how can we know what they are thinking about God and King? Will become enlightenment theories – maybe we don’t need to know what they are thinking about King and God in order to govern them… Put them through the rites is good enough? – very material understanding of knowledge (Biard) Week 5 – Lecture 1 History 202 – Canada to 1867 State and Society in New France 30/09/2013 What’s the difference between state and society? Next week’s reading  an essay by Benjamin Franklin = look for date and then find the one in the syllabus - British imperial reasoning gets driven by colonial reasoning also = statement re. why theAmerican colonists think France should be OUT of North America/Canada film also = fate of the continent (?)  link on the syllabus State = an international political unit Difference between state and government? The government can change but the state remains somewhat static = the state refers to the apparatus of government  the mechanisms of power used to impose rule upon the people (refers to government but not the transitory meaning of government) Where does the state end and society begin? State vs. private action. When is someone acting as an agent of the state? Very few state claims that are uncontested. = Originally, there was not much formal state presence in Early Canada = people come with warrant (government gives them a piece of paper asserting that they represent royal authority BUT to some degree it really is just a piece of paper = only application of power will prove the power of the paper!) early on people go to NF as traders, settlers and even convicts ‘state official’is a hat that they sometimes put on  most of the time they are busy trying to pursue a living, convert people etc. = to be a state official is not to eschew private profit  people invest in official positions in order to earn profits from fees, bribes, side-line industries and perhaps to avoid debts stronger distinction exists now if people are seen to be profiting from public service but this is NEW (almost an Enlightenment ideal – there is a bound and limited state and that a good strong community distinguishes between
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