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202 - Week 11 – Lecture 1 - State Formation.docx

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HIST 202
Elsbeth Anne Heaman

Week 11 – Lecture 1 – 11/11/2013 History 202 – Canada to 1867 State Formation Formal politics are locked in stalemate over constitutional forms - meanwhile, life goes on: o enormous expansion in Canadian population, economy  insatiable demand for timber in GB (Napoleonic blockade during the period)  wheat export economy in Upper Canada in 1840  not just designed for export; most things grown in e19thC are not shipped out = developing staple tradeAS WELL as local economies • Upper Canada = artisanal trade e.g. piano (in Ontario) o 1815-1860 – huge immigration from GB; 1 million from GB; Ontario is the frontier where there is land available o BUT not seamless transition; many tensions, many social problems related to seasonal labour, lack of extended families, neighbourhood traditions (everyone is trying to make Canada as British as possible = in many respects this does not happen)  e.g. barren agricultural frontier in Ontario - Most people live on the land making a living from agriculture - But there are emergent cities – 1851: o Montréal – 58,000 o Quebec - 46,000 o Toronto – 31,000 o Saint John – close to 30,000 - cities are constantly struggling to oust noxious nuisances , keep down fires, supply water, rein in violence, provide for the ill - huge extension of popular organisations, institutions like charitable, cultural political associations and societies, lively press o Catholic vs.Anglican Church = Catholics have many institutions, which gives Protestants an incentive to do something also o Theatres, acting troops, musical societies, snowshoeing societies = political organisations of all sorts  Orange Protestant order o Openly political parties also = hugely important institutions for organising everyday life - British NorthAmericans are ‘joiners’and are largely committed to the principle of voluntarism as the basis of civil society - But many of the social problems and tensions in these rapidly changing colonies seem to demand more than voluntary intervention can provide and there is growing demand for state involvement: sometimes supporting voluntary efforts, sometimes replacing them with its own institutions - Emergence of the modern state is one of the large-scale changes of the 19thC - The state at the start of the 19thC is a ‘fiscal military state’ o Most of what it does is fighting wars and taxing people to pay for the wars. Maintain that justice etc. as well but that’s much cheaper o Military demand – state steps up it’s game = in New France, there is the military presence but not the state collection agency  These agencies are one of the most important mechanisms in mediating between the state and the subject o End of the 19 C = the state is an administrative state  it actually administers a great many parts of everyday life
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