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HIST 202 – Follow Up on Events.docx

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HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

HIST 202 Survey: Canada to 1867 (December 4 2011) 1. Canada and International trends in State and Empire formation emergence of new nation states o In this sense, what is going on in Canada is going on in western Europe at this time o Sense of a new self-described nation, giving itself a structure o Germany is coming together as a state in 1866 national consolidation o We can see it as a larger story of national consolidation. o A strengthening, consolidating of what began as a fragile nation. imperial expansion o Both that of Britain, but also Canada as an empire o We will see from day one of the discussions surrounding the creation of this dominion, central Canadians have their eye on the north-west. 2. International influences US Civil War o Present in Darcy McGee. o Mobilization that it entails is huge. 900,000 soldiers in the southern army, 2,000,000 in the union army just under 3,000,000 armed soldiers fighting out this war. The population of the assembled population of Canada at this time is 3.5 million. So there is almost as many people in Canada participating in this war. o Violent and frightening o Casualty rate is 618,220. o This is six times the casualty rate of world war 2, nearly 65x the casualty rate of the Vietnam War o When Abraham Lincoln is assassinated in 1865, many newspapers are exploring the context of this event. Riots (specifically great riot in New York) o Recent immigrants o Racial violence o Beating up on the local black population who are being held responsible for the draft. o A sense of (in some quarters) desire to erase the presence of black soldiers. Trent Affair; Chesapeake Incident o Trent Affair Present in Darcy McGee. Happened in 1861. U.S flighting international law, stops a British ship called the Trent that was sailing from Havana to England, and on the ship were two southern agents who were heading to England on an diplomatic mission. Immediate concern was that when there is a war between the US and Britain, Canada will be the most vulnerable. o Chesapeake Incident Takes the US conflict into British waters When the confederate sees the ship they take it to the Maritimes to sell the cargo, in order to finance the military operation. Northern US ship has found itself into Maritime waters, seized by confederates. The North then attacks the ships. Both the North and South have violated A) Britains neutrality B) Violated British sovereignty in US waters Could easily link to war. Made it seem like the south was going to use the Maritimes as a base in the North. Saint Albans Raid (1864) o Confederate Agents rob a couple banks in Northern Vermont o With their loot, they flee across the border into Canada. o The Canadian government arrests the raiders, so it doesnt endorse or support the raid in any way. o US government orders troops to follow the raiders into Canada o In the end, Lincoln revokes the order, because sending troops into Canada evokes a declaration of war. o This has people concerned, editorial writers are going to town on the idea of a potential war. Britain building war ships to send to the south o Seen as provocation o North takes Britain to court, saying that they are causing depredations. o Court case is resolved in 1872 and Britain pays compensation. Abrogation of Reciprocity Treaty Alabama claims Fenian War US annexationism o Since 1850 (for example), William Seward [American secretary of state during the American civil war] has been a strong supporter of US Annexation of BNA. o There is a bill introduced and passed in the house of representatives called A Bill for the Admission of the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East and CanadaWest. And for the organization of territories of . Called the Annexation bill and passes in 1866. o Strong vain of public opinion; important part of governmental class of this time. o Not incidentally without support in Canada. Some people have sympathies to the idea of joining to the US as a better means to an end than Confederation. 2. Political and Financial Crises in Canadas operating under the active union of 1840; we have a single legislator. (elected) o they have an equal number of seats, Canada West is always guaranteed 42 seats in 1840. Canada East 42 seats. Regardless of growth of population. It grows to 62/62 later on. o By now, the population of Canada West has far outgrown Canada East. o The difference in these two parts of the Canadas havent vanished; Canada East is majority Catholic, Until very recently we still have civil law of French Regime. o In 1854 the Seigniorial system is abolished, but civil laws are still different and based on the French system (not British civil law) o Different educational systems; public education system in Canada East is r
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