Class Notes (839,150)
Canada (511,218)
History (1,443)
HIST 202 (65)

HIST 202 – Life on the Land.docx

4 Pages

Course Code
HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
HIST 202 – Survey: Canada to 1867 (September 21 2011) Life on the Land – Notes Sulpicians  Order of priests who control the giant seigneury encompassing the entire island of Montreal Transforming forest into farmland  “Fell” the trees, cut down the trees to make land  Uses the wood as supplies to make a home  arpents of clearing – roughly equivalent to an acre or one-third of a hectare Make their money from crops and harvesting  Iroquoian crops o Corn, beans and squash  Wage work  Sales of firewood, eggs and produce in Montreal  Borrowed capital  Old World Staple and wheat The woman‟s role  In charge of the animals o A cow, the oxen, a sow and a dozen chicken  The kitchen garden  Family‟s supply of tobacco  She is vital in the family‟s wellbeing “An early stage in the emergence of the French-Canadian „habitant‟ class, a term which in the Canadian context came to designate landowning cultivators or peasants” (Life of the Land, 29)  Population growth was a continuous process of colonization that brought more and more territory under the plough throughout the French regime and beyond  Settlements stayed close to the water Property  Property was laid out in long, tin rectangles, going from the river to the forests  Roads were not needed due to the close quarters of houses  ** It was possible to have seigniorial tenure with irregular lots  High degree of uniformity in habitant farms  If there was excess farmland, it was usually used as a trust for the child for when they married Developments  Peasants had 1 or 2 horses, which some conventional people thought was too many for a peasant  Road network started to make an impact on how peasants travelled  Judgment on social hierarchy is smuggled into a useful observation on agricultural practice  New France was self-sufficient o Mostly subsisted entirely on the produce of their own farm Misunderstandings  Not a „closed‟ agrarian system  Habitants always drew on the outside world for some essential supplies  No „barter economy‟  Habitants habitually relied on credit, recorded in monetary terms  Rural household had to have something of value to sell to the outside o Urban markets  Self-sufficiency of the habitant household was not absolute  „Static‟ rural society; It was actually a highly dynamic configuration of household cells  Not socially isolated o Lots of visiting and socializing o Formal community institutions were largely lacking o There was no commune in the colony because no direct taxes were levied there o The parish was the only framework for local community Rules of Inherence  Laid down by the Custom of Paris  The law only conferred a claim on each heir, it did not require the literal division of property Parishes  Cure; residential priest  Looked like an authoritarian unit of administration  Set up on orders from the bishop and run by his delegate (the cure)  Cure was remunerated through the tithe  People tended to act as though the church and rectory were community halls, built by and for the use of local residents  Not exclusively a sacred place Disputes  Harm happened when the bishop interfered with the settled community arrangements by adjusting the parochial boundaries or ordering the relocation of a church  Other dispute centered on the vestry and its council of elected churchwardens (manguilliers)  The church was largely a creation of the habitants Seigneurs  Existed because the French government, like other colonial regimes of the time, sought to structure property relations so as to foster the emergence of a landed elite  Primarily clerical and noble  Offered the promise of long term security and aristocratic prestige and substantial revenues  Main benefit was rent o Specified in the title deed (concession) when the lot was first grant
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.