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HIST 202 – Empire and Native People.docx

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HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

HIST 202 Survey: Canada to 1867 (September 26 2011) Empire and Native People How do we tell these stories that both respects/reflects the autonomy of these people, but also describes the destructive empire Emphasize resilience and action with native people No single way of telling this story History is about Facts, but also about the meanings we prescribe to these facts. Meanings are crucial and never totally simple/one sided Metaphor: entanglement o Idea of native people entangled in empires Religion is an extremely important factor in the building empires Christianity in particular Partnership between monotheism and empire o In the Christian case, back to Constantine One of the functions it will serve is legitimation o Christians have a right to rule over basically everybody o If you believe that your God is the God of everybody, and your founding myth is Genesis (Saying God creates everybody), then essentially your rule is a universal claim o Since the Crusades, Christians have been arguing that they have the right to rule by the word of God (in the old and new testaments) so that they can make that word known o The Pope is centrally present in these discussions There is a sense of the birth of international law, or one of the important strands of international law, is created by Christian Lawyers Missionaries (religious professionals) are extremely important, and indeed the claim of secular officials (governors and the king of France) to be Christian rules are the central part of the empire Painting: La France apportant la foi la Nouvelle-France. Muse des Ursulines. Qubec. Artist unknown. 1670? First belonged to Jesuits, then give to Ursulines. o Allegorical scene of the royal family o A painting also shown; a story within a story o Symbolizing Europeans teaching agencies o Europeans show these scenes all the time in their teaching methods o Use fear a lot in these images (like burning in hell) o Adjust these pictures of native people o Indians dont like Gods with Beards for example o Vital instruments in converting o The painting shows you that everything shes doing, everything shes seeing is coming from Up Above. o Claiming to rule in virtues of Gods sanction o The Royal Family like the royal family in heaven o Surrounding herself in a cloak of Christianity o On earth she is showing native people all these truths (god is up there, she rules of virtue of god, and the story of Christ and the Christian Church is the one true thing they need to know) o A great summary of French Empirical Legitimizing Discourse *** o The story the French tell themselves of why they have a right to be here In that story they tell themselves they have always gotten grateful, obeying, native people (usually in visual representations + textual representations depicted with their hands out, sitting down [below the royal person], always receiving) as an inferior person. o Visual images are very important, represent what is also depicted in text and to some extent ** in their actions The Catholic Reformation o Like Protestants there is a huge emphasis on rooting out corruption o Emphasize Sacraments Marriage Baptism Extreme Unction Breaking of Bread in the middle of mass o You are in a sense touching to the divine o Highly charged, deeply significant moments o There are priests that act as mediators They essentially have one hand in heaven and one hand on earth o Sacramental religion o Missionaries These are the only ones who can perform the sacrament o Highly charged time in the history of the catholic church o A sense of battling against ignorance and heresy Jesuits o The religious order o They train in all sorts of different things, but most importantly theology o Most important clergy of the time o Go through spiritual exercises o Pilgrimages to renew their faith o They are the ones (from the moment of their founding in 1954) start fanning out across the world India China Japan (16 century) Latin Americao Get to Canada in 1667 in Acadia o They then move their base to Quebec and the Inu o Later they go to Huronia near Georgian Bay (between Lake Huron and Lake Ontario o Jesuit Relations 1632-1673 Start again in 1701-1773 under a different name Continues until the Jesuit order is repressed Dripping with Superior Catholic ideologies Very important recounts of Native People Texts are extremely useful Filtered through the notion that the only truth is the catholic truth Descriptions are very rich o Jesuits are travelled amongst very different native groups o Are received as sorcerers or part of the larger French presence One of the important points in the long run is that the Jesuits are one of the impotent figures in building native alliances Natives feel as if they are a permanent sign in their relationship with the French A reassuring presence that reminds them that they have an alliance o Many Jesuits become adopted into native societies
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