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HIST 202 – Immigration.docx

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HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

HIST 202 Survey: Canada to 1867 (October 31 2011) Immigration Politics and Political Turbulence; Looking at this part of the world (north east of north America) an area that experienced a lot of reverberations American revolution War of 1812 Move away from the politics and focus on the people War of 1812 was a real watershed with patterns of immigration Post 1815 Period -> Confederation Immigration then and today have a way of throwing up social fault lines, conflicts, issues of identity, etc. This period is absolutely no exception in that respect 1. 1763-1815 Before Situation Pre 1815: most immigrants are from 13 colonies/US 3 waves of Americans Nothing British about BNA (Lower Canada majority) Patterns of migration at this time is largely American; coming from the 13 colonies and then the United States of America after 1783 First movement of people largely went to Nova Scotia (about 7,000) New Englanders, replacing the Acadians whom were deported. Second flow was the Loyalists to Upper Canada Third movement were post loyalist migrants of Americans by large looking for land. Most are going to Upper Canada. Brought the population to 75,000. Three waves of migration mainly coming from 13 colonies and America Really not a British place Most heavily populated area in Canada is Lower Canada with a population of 335,000. o Mainly rural population of small scale farmers speaking French. No need to speak English especially in the country side o Prevailing law governing their society is still French Civil Law Remaining population (around 200,000 people) were mostly descendants of Americans and culturally and economically tied with the United States of America British North America; end of the war in 1812. Still not very British Entering this period of really numerous migration after 1815. 2. 1815-1870s Overview of change between 1815-1870 a decrease is immigration from the united states an act of policy; just went through an invasion by the United States one exception to the pattern of non-US immigration during this period; African Americans o tens of thousands of Black Americans migrate to British North America o They are discouraged from coming? o Even during the war of 1812, 4,000 former slaves are going to desert to the British side and some 2,000 new refugees are going to poor into Nova Scotia o Between 1815 and the civil war, this process will continue. Canada gains a reputation as a place of refuge for the Black Population o Notion of the underground railroad as a secretive, discreet network that helped black migrants from town to town and mostly to Upper Canada and the Maritimes o This process is going to receive a boost when the US congress in the 1850s passes the fugitive slave act Slave owners can go outside their jurisdiction to capture and retrieve fugitive slaves Creates an additional incentive for people to move further and further away from the place they were leaving. o By mid century thousands of people are coming by steamer by the great lakes on a great basis. o Numbers arent huge, but definitely an exception to the end of migration from the United States o Estimated that 10,000 black slaves migrated. Very hard to get distinct numbers because during the period the only written records were of those boarding the ships, nothing else. Slavery is abolished in the British empire in 1833 (double check) Slavery is still an ongoing institution until the Civil War in America Period in 1832 when slavery is abolished within the British empire but still ongoing in the united states Incentive to leave is that much greater Even before slavery is abolished formally in the British Empire, there is still an incentive to leave the US and get their freedom Aside from this regular flow of African American (Some free, some recently free), the vast majority of migrants coming to British North America after the war of 1812 are coming from the British Isles This is deeply consequential We are in this imperial space; British North America is part of this lager empire; being part of an empire becomes a space for exporting social problems. Happening on a very large scale; mostly going to the US. Europe (whales, England, Ireland, etc.) exports just under 4 million to the US at this time. Many come to British North America (1.273 million) Starting in the 1840s, just under a million go to Australia and new Zealand as well. All other destinations; about 126,000 The US. Is going to be the main destination of migrants from the British Isles up until the 1840s. More will be going to new Zealand and Australia than to British North America as of the 1850s. British North America is an important destination but is not the main one (the united states) and after the 1850s New Zealand and Australia are getting more than British North America With this second wave to British north America makes this much more a British space than it was before Far from unproblematic Social demographic of British North America is changing, population growth is going to increase as well By the time of confederation, the result of all of this, plus natural increase, is going to be a population of 3.5 million. Nearly 7x what it had been in 1815. Censuses become regularly institution as of 1851. Attitude of census takers by native people is invariable. Sometimes they are considered not part of the population and are not counted (overlooked), but also an assimilation tendency; native origin/ide
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