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HIST 202 – Seven Years War.docx

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HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

HIST 202 – Survey: Canada to 1867 (October 3 rd2011) Seven Years War (First World War) Does not last seven years Amount of money spent unprecedented. At the end of the seven years war Russia and England are the top powers whereas France and Russia were before. Military History (1755-1760) Combat between an expert fencer who doesn’t know how to swim and an expert swimmer who doesn’t know how to fence. France is the fencer, they have a good army. They want to battle on land. No Navy. England has been building their navy (twice the size of France’s). Want to see this war conducted on the seas. In the long run this is what happens. In the short run it plays on the land. Strategies:  British attack in Acadia  1756-1757: Governor Vaudreuil is successful with frontier raid. Frontiers of Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. 2000 Native warriors, 300 raids. At least 3000 british settlers killed. Native assisted raids diminish in 1758, leaving New France vulnerable, why? Because of smallpox and England is blocking the French trade. The Native people begin associating their sickness with the French. The French can no longer give gifts to the natives in exchange for their furs. If you go to the Ohio valley: you’re there for a year or 2 years minimum , it’s an agricultural society. The Colonies have difficulty feeding themselves and 7000 new soldiers from France arrive in 1755. When the British are preparing to attack Quebec, they burn fields and crops because they don’t want the French to feed their troops. 1760: Terms of capitulation are signed between Vaudreuil and Amherst. All colonies are allowed to return to France even if they have been up in arms. A few hundred take this right up. Mostly aristocrats, intendant, judges. The majority stay because they have their riches in New France in their land. They are told they will not be disrupted in their land and properties. Acadian Deportation The Acadians:  In 1755, there are 15000 peasant farmer and fisherman living throughout the Nova Scotia peninsula.  They call the British King their King but they won’t pick up arms or fight against the French. That’s the agreement, it’s becoming increasing difficult to do that.  The English attack the French and who do they find in the fort? The Acadians. The British considered this almost treason. Theyre not that pissed but they just want to avoid any future problems.  The Acadian governor gives the orders to deport all the Acadians.  English own Acadia in 45, in 48 it is given back to the French. Massachusetts are piiissed. They want to fight until Acadia becomes British again.  Scattered throughout North America. Some go to the Saint Lawrence Valley (bad time to go, starving in the forest), some go to other French colonies, some go back to France. In none of these places, are they welcome. Many die because they leave with the clothes on their backs. A real scattering, migration that doesn’t end until the 1830s.  3000s Acadians sent to South America to create utopian colony with no slavery. Send them with German peasants. Weirdest idea: comes from the French scientists. They think maybe slavery ain’t that great. Slaves aren’t the most loyal. Acadians are pretty fucking docile. Thousands othpeople die: malaria, yellow fever. Enlightenment (18 c) idea.  They end up forming the Cajun population. End of Seven Years War: European Peace Treaty – Treaty of Paris (1763) France loses everything. Has Islands Saint Pierre et Miquelon. It retains its right to fish. Question: Will France pay what it owes for the war? Or Instead will it get the Carribean island of Martinique and Guadeloupe. The only reason England wants to keep Canada is security because it’s really expensive. They consider just taking the Carribean Islands because those are the most lucrative (sugar colonies). Goree is also returne
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