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Lecture 2

HIST 203 Lecture 2: 2-2-2017 Natives

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HIST 203
John Zucchi

HIST 203 Lecture 9 February 2 Native Legislation - Amerindians and reserves under Sec 91 (24) of BNA Act - Paternalism: Wardship - Indian Act 1868 - Indian Act 1876 consolidated earlier acts and revised in 1880 - Approach: to assimilate Indians to European way of life – through franchise and private property, residential schools, agricultural policy o Provide natives new way to perceive land, away from communal land to private ownership o Assimilate the first nations children to assimilate them into white society and allow them to enter the white workforce - Aboriginals passively resisted changes to their ways of life o The old ways of Aboriginal life were collapsing, the buffalo were dying and Aboriginals were forced to become sedentary as they were now contained on reserves o It would take Aboriginals decades to accustom themselves to a new way of life, but nonetheless they did so to resist Canadian assimilation Religion and Society - Two main Christian grouping: Protestants and Roman Catholics. 98% of pop. 1901 - By turn of the century, significant number of Jews, and some Confucians and Buddhists among Chinese immigrants, a few Sikhs; Native spiritualties - Roman Catholics o Descendants of 17 century French immigrants whom British tried to assimilate after the conquest o Acadians who returned after exile o Scottish Catholic Highland immigrants on Cap Breton Island or in Glengarry County, E. Ontario o Famine Irish: Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, East Ontario, Manitoba (pre-famine to NB and NS) ▪ Irish in Quebec and Montreal were Catholic and more protestant in Toronto New immigration th o New immigrant groups bean to change face of Catholicism late 19 century o Ukrainian (Uniates: Easter Rite) Catholics, Poles, Germans, Belgians, and Italians introduced new traditions and sensibilities to their religious traditions o Religion became and important way to help immigrants to adapt to Canada and its institutions Protestants o Many denominations within Canadian Protestantism o Methodists predominated in Ontario, Presbyterians in Protestant Quebec and in Nova Scotia. Baptists were the most significant denomination in NS. Presbyterians and Methodists were the two major forces in the West o Anglicanism significant across the country by lost its numerical strength over the decades Methodism th o Them most surprising denomination: it grew in size and influence through the 19 century o Entered Canada from both England and the US. Used unorthodox ways to reach the unchurched – revivals, saddlebag preachers, awakenings, etc. ▪ Saddlebag preachers: went into the backwoods and reach those without faith where other religions wouldn’t go Methodism: Sect into denomination o Methodism had to shake off its American past. As it grew in influence and its adherents joined the middle class, it transformed to a mainstream religion o Transformation of its Churches o
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