HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Maurice Duplessis, Pierre Trudeau, October Crisis

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Quiet Revolution
October Crisis
Trudeau Interview
-Easy to take one side or the other
-Trudeau said “just watch me” when asked how far his security program would extend
-Concerned the battle between civil liberties and security, in the face of FLQ crisis
Quiet Revolution-Basics
What was it?
-Quebec society was modernized in that it became a modern North American society
-Included secularism, the building of infrastructure, a decreasing birth rate
-Developed government bureaucracy
-Effective middle class
-Interventionist state
Nationalism’s Developments
History
-Not new to Quebec
-Developed in the 1820s with the Patriotes, a lay middle class of professionals who emerged
from the struggle for responsible government
-The Church had increased its presence after rebellions of the 1830s, amplifying control over
schools, hospitals, and other social services
-Led to the development of a clerical nationalism
-in the late 19th century, industrialization occurred and a working class grew
-By the mid-1920s, there was a strong clerical nationalism but it was also shared by the lay
middle-class
-Between the wars, there was economic growth in Canada
-Industrialization since the late 1800s and expansion of the resource sector in the 1920s created
prosperity, but French-Canadians didn’t share in the benefits
Education
-Mass education before the 1960s was at the elementary level
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-Education system was controlled by the church
-Emphasized the liberal arts and humanities
-Colleges Classiques
The State
-Hesitancy on the part of the government to move towards interventionism
-Taschereau attempted to grow the government but the Church resisted for fear of losing its
power in the social sector
-Adelard Godbout nationalized Montreal Light Heat and Power Company in 1944, but Duplessis
refused to continue the trend
-Politically, government expansion was difficult in the face of the church
State Passivity on Health, Education, and Welfare
-Education was run by the Conseil de l’instruction Publique
-Rarely met, and the government refused to take charge
-Public Assistance Law, 1921 government directed funds to private groups for health care for the
needy and indigent
-Government never developed the tools for a good, strong bureaucracy
Rise of the Middle Class
-During the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, a new middle class with a new, modernized outlook
developed
-This new middle class is small at first but grows
-Some who began to get university educations went back into education as lay professors
-This began to confer new ideas on people over time
-Fr. Georges-Henri Levesque brought in American ideas of social sciences
-Helped set up universities in Africa
-Had a very modern outlook
-Taught a more interventionist state, liberal ideas, etc
-Modernized the welfare institutions when they came to power much later on, and continued to
impact the education system
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Document Summary

Easy to take one side or the other. Trudeau said just watch me when asked how far his security program would extend. Concerned the battle between civil liberties and security, in the face of flq crisis. Quebec society was modernized in that it became a modern north american society. Included secularism, the building of infrastructure, a decreasing birth rate. Developed in the 1820s with the patriotes, a lay middle class of professionals who emerged from the struggle for responsible government. The church had increased its presence after rebellions of the 1830s, amplifying control over schools, hospitals, and other social services. Led to the development of a clerical nationalism. In the late 19th century, industrialization occurred and a working class grew. By the mid-1920s, there was a strong clerical nationalism but it was also shared by the lay middle-class. Between the wars, there was economic growth in canada.

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