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Lecture 19

HIST 203 Lecture 19: 4-6-2017 Quiet Revolution

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HIST 203
John Zucchi

Quiet Revolution October Crisis Trudeau Interview -Easy to take one side or the other -Trudeau said “just watch me” when asked how far his security program would extend -Concerned the battle between civil liberties and security, in the face of FLQ crisis Quiet Revolution-Basics What was it? -Quebec society was modernized in that it became a modern North American society -Included secularism, the building of infrastructure, a decreasing birth rate -Developed government bureaucracy -Effective middle class -Interventionist state Nationalism’s Developments History -Not new to Quebec -Developed in the 1820s with the Patriotes, a lay middle class of professionals who emerged from the struggle for responsible government -The Church had increased its presence after rebellions of the 1830s, amplifying control over schools, hospitals, and other social services -Led to the development of a clerical nationalism -in the late 19 century, industrialization occurred and a working class grew -By the mid-1920s, there was a strong clerical nationalism but it was also shared by the lay middle-class -Between the wars, there was economic growth in Canada -Industrialization since the late 1800s and expansion of the resource sector in the 1920s created prosperity, but French-Canadians didn’t share in the benefits Education -Mass education before the 1960s was at the elementary level -Education system was controlled by the church -Emphasized the liberal arts and humanities -Colleges Classiques The State -Hesitancy on the part of the government to move towards interventionism -Taschereau attempted to grow the government but the Church resisted for fear of losing its power in the social sector -Adelard Godbout nationalized Montreal Light Heat and Power Company in 1944, but Duplessis refused to continue the trend -Politically, government expansion was difficult in the face of the church State Passivity on Health, Education, and Welfare -Education was run by the Conseil de l’instruction Publique -Rarely met, and the government refused to take charge -Public Assistance Law, 1921 government directed funds to private groups for health care for the needy and indigent -Government never developed the tools for a good, strong bureaucracy Rise of the Middle Class -During the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, a new middle class with a new, modernized outlook developed -This new middle class is small at first but grows -Some who began to get university educations went back into education as lay professors -This began to confer new ideas on people over time -Fr. Georges-Henri Levesque brought in American ideas of social sciences -Helped set up universities in Africa -Had a very modern outlook -Taught a more interventionist state, liberal ideas, etc -Modernized the welfare institutions when they came to power much later on, and continued to impact the education system -Two ideologies emerged from the middle class to challenge the status quo from the 1940s onward: liberalism and neo-nationalism -Liberalism, tied to the idea of laicite, bred Pierre Trudeau -Neo-nationalism led to the PQ over time -Had some common threads -Both patterns have a lot in common, being anti-clerical but tied to the church in some ways -Both dissatisfied with Maurice Duplessis -Boiled beneath the surface before being unleashed later Neo-Nationalistes -Well educated urban French Canadians who emerged from traditional nationalists -Understood that Quebec society was entering a new soci-economicphase in the 1950s -Saw that a new federalism was developing as Louis St-Laurent’s government became more centralized and powerful/interventionist -Thus, this group became the neo-nationalists -Strongly criticized old nationalism as too clerical and too entrenched in a pre-modern world that was bygone -Made inroads into society through the Francophone labor movement, in teachers’ federations, and in the cooperative movement -While these were originally Catholic, they had drifted away in the last few decades -Led by Andre Laurandeau -Called for the modernization of Quebec, but not individual rights, favoring instead collectivism -Called for an interventionist state, but a nationalist one set to advance French-Canadian interests and eventually a new Quebecois nation -What matte
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